Acting as a bio-corridor between the Cusco Andes, the Sacred Valley and the lowland Amazon forest, the Santuario Histórico de Machu Picchu possesses over 370 species of bird, 47 mammal species and over 700 butterfly species. Some of the more notable residents include the cock-of-the-rock (Rupicola peruviana, known as tunkis in the Quechua-speaking Andes), spectacled bear (Tremarctos ornatus) and condor (Vultur gryphus). In addition, there are around 300 different species of orchid hidden up in the trees of the cloud forest.

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