Almost every village in Portugal has its own festival (festa) or traditional pilgrimage (romaria), usually to celebrate the local saint’s day or the regional harvest. Some are little more than an excuse for the villagers to hold a low-key procession and picnic or barbecue and dance, while others have become serious celebrations lasting several days and attracting tourists from all over the world.
The great weekly feiras, like that at Barcelos in north, were originally simply markets, but nowadays are a combination of agricultural show, folk festival, amusement park and, admittedly, tourist bazaar. Most towns also put on concerts, dances, processions and events throughout the year (especially between June and September), while an increasing number of music festivals are held in Portugal, pulling in giants of the music world: big events include NOS Primavera in Porto (June) and NOS Alive in Lisbon (July).
Only the major highlights are picked out in the festival calendar given here. Check with local turismos and have a look at the websites of the various town halls (Câmara Municipal: usually "cm-nameoftown.pt"), which always carry news about forthcoming festivities.
Among major national events, Easter week and the Santos Populares festivities – associated with St Anthony (June 12/13), St John (June 23/24) and St Peter (June 28/29) – stand out. All are celebrated throughout the country with religious processions. Easter is most magnificent in Braga, where it is full of ceremonial pomp, while the saints’ festivals tend to be more joyous affairs. In Lisbon, during the saint’s day festa for Santo António, the Alfama becomes one giant street party. In Porto, where St John’s Eve is the highlight of a week of celebration, everyone dances through the streets all night, hitting each other over the head with leeks or plastic hammers.
Epiphany (Dia de Reis) Jan 6. The traditional crown-shaped cake bolo rei (king’s cake) with a lucky charm and a bean inside is eaten; if you get the bean in your slice you have to buy the cake next year.
Carnaval Many areas now have Rio-like carnival parades, with Lisbon and the Algarve towns being good destinations. But Carnaval has much older traditions steeped in springtime fertility rites, and for a glimpse of what it was like before thongs and spangles, check out the masked merry-making of the Entrudo dos Comprades, near Lamego.
Easter Holy week (Semana Santa) religious processions in most places, most majestically in Braga, and at São Brás de Alportel in the Algarve (the Festa das Tochas). The Festa da Mãe Soberana in Loulé (Algarve) is one of the country’s largest Easter festivals. Another good location is Tomar, where the floral crosses of the procession are ceremoniously destroyed afterwards.
Sintra Music Festival Performances throughout May by international orchestras, musicians and dance groups in parks, gardens and palaces in and around Sintra, Estoril and Cascais.
Queima das Fitas Early May. The “burning of the ribbons”, celebrating the end of the academic year, reaches its drunken apogee in Coimbra and other university towns.
Festa das Cruzes May 3. The “Festival of the Crosses” is the biggest annual event in Barcelos (Minho).
Fátima (Peregrinação de Fátima) May 13. Portugal’s most famous pilgrimage commemorates the Apparitions of the Virgin Mary; also in October.
Corpus Christi Vaca das Cordas End of May (or early June). This is a “running of the bull” ceremony in Ponte de Lima with roots in classical mythology.
Festa de São Gonçalo First weekend in June. Prominent saint’s day celebrations in Amarante.
Rock in Rio Lisboa First week in June. Europe’s largest rock festival (an offshoot of the enormous Rock in Rio fest) is held in even numbered years.
Feira Nacional da Agricultura First two weeks in June. Held at Santarém, for ten days from the first Friday, with dancing, bullfighting and an agricultural fair.
Santos Populares Second & fourth weeks in June. Celebrations in honour of Santo António (St Anthony, June 12–13), São João (St John, 23–24) and Pedro (St Peter, 28–29) throughout the country.
Arraial Pride Lisbon’s increasingly popular gay pride event changes exact date and venue annually but usually takes place towards the end of the month.
Festa dos Tabuleiros First week in July. Tomar’s biggest and most spectacular procession takes place every four years, with the next two being in 2019 and 2023.
Festa do Colete Encarnado First two weeks in July. Held in Vila Franca de Xira, with Pamplona-style running of bulls through the streets.
Festival Sudoeste Second week in Aug. Much-heralded four-day rock, indie and electro music festival at Zambujeira do Mar, Alentejo coast.
Festas Gualterianas First weekend in Aug. The major festival in Guimarães has been held since the fifteenth century.
Festa do Nossa Senhora da Boa Viagem First weekend in Aug. Seafaring is celebrated at Peniche with religious processions by boat and on land.
Romaria da Nossa Senhora d'Agonía Third weekend in Aug. Viana do Castelo’s major annual religious celebration, plus carnival and fair.
Romaria de Nossa Senhora dos Remédios First week in Sept. The annual pilgrimage in Lamego comes to a head at the end of the first week, though events start in the last week of August.
Festa do Avante! First weekend in Aug. The Portuguese Communist Party’s big annual bash sees three days of live music, events, rallies and speeches in Seixal, a town on the south bank of the Tejo opposite Lisbon.
Feiras Novas Second & third weekends in Sept. The “New Fairs” – a traditional festival and market – held in Ponte de Lima.
Festa de São Mateus Third or fourth week in Sept. A week’s worth of celebrations in Elvas (Alentejo), including a huge religious procession plus the usual fairs and fireworks.
Feira de Outubro First two weeks in Oct. Bull-bull-running and bullfighting in Vila Franca de Xira.
Fátima Oct 13. The second great pilgrimage of the year at Fátima.
Feira Nacional do Cavalo First two weeks in Nov. The National Horse Fair, held in Golegã.
São Martinho Nov 11. Celebrations in honour of St Martin, with roots in pre-Christian harvest festivals coincides with the first tastings of the year’s wine, roast chestnuts and Água Pé – a weak wine made from watered-down dregs. At its most traditional in northern Trás-os-Montes, Beira Baixa (particularly Alcains), Golegã, and Penafiel east of Porto.
Christmas (Natal) Dec 24. The main Christmas celebration is midnight Mass on December 24, followed by a traditional meal of bacalhau, turkey or – bizarrely in Trás-os-Montes – octopus.
New Year’s Eve (Noite de Ano Novo) Dec 31. Individual towns organize their own events, usually with fireworks at midnight, and the New Year is welcomed by the banging of old pots and pans.