Summer of Love: a journey through San Francisco 50 years on
San Francisco was the epicentre of the Summer of Love, a movement intent on changing the foundations of American society forever. Half a century later, Tamara…
The Big Island’s southernmost volcanoes, Mauna Loa and Kilauea, jointly constitute HAWAII VOLCANOES NATIONAL PARK, thirty miles from Hilo and eighty from Kailua. The park’s dramatic landscapes include desert, arctic tundra and rainforest, besides two active volcanoes.
Evidence is everywhere of the awesome power of the volcanoes to create and destroy; no map can keep up with the latest whims of the lava flow. Whole towns have been engulfed, and once-prized beachfront properties lie buried hundreds of yards back from the sea.
The main focus of the park is Kilauea Caldera, the summit crater of Kilauea, twenty miles up from the ocean. Close to the rim, both the visitor centre and the fascinating Jaggar Museum of geology offer basic orientation. Kilauea is said to be the home of the volcano goddess Pele, who has followed the “hot spot” from island to island. When Mark Twain came here in 1866, he observed a dazzling lake of liquid fire; after a huge explosion in 1924 it became shallower and quieter, a black dusty expanse dotted with hissing steam vents. Volcanic activity in the caldera resumed in 2008, however, so visitors currently can only admire the merging plumes of smoke from a distance.
It’s still possible to hike nearby. The five-mile Kilauea Iki Trail explores an adjoining crater, where you pick your way from cairn to cairn across an eerie landscape of cracked and jagged lava, while the mile-long Devastation Trail is a boardwalk laid across the scene of a 1959 eruption.
Chain of Craters Road winds down to the sea from Crater Rim Drive, sweeping around cones and vents in an empty landscape where the occasional dead white tree trunk or flowering shrub pokes up. Fresh sheets of lava constantly ooze down the slopes to cover the road, so it now comes to a dead end a short way along the coast, a fifty-mile round-trip from the park entrance (with no facilities along the way). Depending on where current volcanic activity is concentrated, it is possible at times to walk across the congealed lava from the end of the road to see molten rock gush from the earth – sometimes directly into the sea.
Travel offers; book through Rough Guides
The latest articles, galleries, quizzes and videos.
Few regions of the world have been as idealized and mythologized as California – and yet it seldom fails to live up to the hype. The glamour, surf beaches and…
A vast expanse of stunning desert scenery, the Southwest is arguably the USA’s most spectacular region. For splendour and sheer scale, the landscape consisten…