The commercial core of Hanoi is Hoan Kiem District, home to the city’s banks, airlines and the GPO, plus most of the hotels, restaurants, shopping streets and markets. But there’s a lot more to the area, not least Hoan Kiem lake itself and the nearby temples, which date back to the earliest days of the city. Though you’ll want to spend time on these individual sights, it’s the abundant streetlife and architectural wealth that give the area its special allure. You will likely find walking tours around the district to be particularly worth doing at night, when temples are lit up, making reflections on the water.
The lake itself is very much the city’s spiritual, cultural and commercial heart, so it makes a good place to start exploring Hanoi when travelling in Vietnam and works as a good centre to the Hoan Kiem District in terms of navigation. The streets to the east, south and west of the lake are home to the city’s biggest banks, airline offices and the general post office, as well as some swanky hotels and stylish restaurants. Just a block west of the lake, the trendy shopping street of Nha Tho leading to St Joseph’s Cathedral is a dedicated homage to fashion. The north end of the lake signals the beginning of the Old Quarter, with its maze of narrow lanes.
Hoan Kiem Lake © Vietnam Stock Images / Shutterstock
Hoan Kiem Lake
Early morning sees Hoan Kiem Lake at its best, stirring to life as walkers, joggers and tai chi enthusiasts limber up in the half-light. Space is at a premium in this crowded city, and the lake’s strip of park meets multiple needs, at its busiest when lunch-hour hawkers are out in force and easing down slowly to evenings of old men playing chess and couples seeking twilight privacy on benches half-hidden among the willows. The lake itself is small – you can walk around it in thirty minutes – and not particularly spectacular, but to Hanoians, this is the soul of their city.
The name of the lake, which means “Lake of the Restored Sword”, refers to a legend of the great Vietnamese hero, Le Loi, who led a successful uprising against the Chinese in the fifteenth century. Tradition has it that Le Loi found a sword that was partly responsible for his glorious win, after ten years of battle, the sword was reclaimed by the gods through the use of a golden turtle.
A good way to get your bearings in Hanoi is to make a quick circuit of the lake, a pleasant walk at any time of year and stunning when the flame trees flower in June and July. The sights below are given in clockwise order, beginning at the iconic Huc Bridge (possibly the most photographed sight in the city) at the lake’s northeast corner.
Den Ngoc Son at Hoan Kiem Lake
When crossing the Huc Bridge, an arch of red-lacquered wood poetically labelled “the place where morning sunlight rests”, you will find the secluded Den Ngoc Son sheltering among ancient trees. This small temple, known in Vietnamese as “Temple of the Jade Mound”, was founded in the fourteenth century and is dedicated to an eclectic group: national hero General Tran Hung Dao, who defeated the Mongols in 1288, sits on the principal altar; Van Xuong, God of Literature; physician La To; and a martial arts practitioner, Quan Vu. The temple buildings date from the 1800s and are typical of the Nguyen Dynasty; in the antechamber, look out for the dragon heads, carved with bulbous noses and teeth bared in manic grins.
Huc Bridge © Tony Duy / Shutterstock
Statue of King Ly Thai To
Heading south along the eastern side of the Hoan Kiem Lake, you’ll come to an imperious statue of Hanoi’s founding father, King Ly Thai To, which was erected in 2004 in anticipation of celebrations to mark the city’s millennium in 2010. At dusk, the expanse of polished stone paving around it provides an incongruous venue for Hanoi’s small but keen band of break-dancers.
King Ly Thai To Statue © LSPhotos91 / Shutterstock
The Tortoise Tower at Hoan Kiem Lake
A squat, three-tiered pavilion known as Thap Rua, or the Tortoise Tower, ornaments a tiny island at the southern end of Ho Hoan Kiem. It’s illuminated after dark, and is another of Hanoi’s most prevalent icons, with its reflection shimmering in the lake. It was built in the 19th century to commemorate the legend of the golden turtle and the restored sword but is not accessible to the public.
Tortoise Tower © Efired / Shutterstock
The General Post Office
At the southeast corner of the lake stands the enormous General Post Office, which marks the northern fringe of the French Quarter. Opposite the post office, on the shore of the lake, stands a small and ancient brick tower. This is all that remains of an enormous pagoda complex, Chua Bao An, after French town planners cleared the site in 1892 to construct the administrative offices and residences of their new possession.
St. Joseph’s Cathedral
As you round the southern tip of the lake and head up its western shore, you’ll spot Hanoi’s neo-Gothic cathedral over the rooftops to your left. Veer left along Hang Trong, then left into Nha Tho, to reach it. It was constructed in the early 1880s, partly financed by two lotteries, and though the exterior is badly weathered, its high-vaulted interior is still imposing. Among the first things you notice inside are the ornate altar screen and the stained-glass windows, most of which are French originals. Over the black marble tomb of a former cardinal of Vietnam stands one of several statues commemorating martyred Vietnamese saints, in this case, André Dung Lac, who was executed in 1839 on the orders of the fervently anti-Christian emperor Minh Mang.
St. Josephs Cathedral © Sathianpong Phookit / Shutterstock
The cathedral’s main door is open during services (the celebration of Mass was allowed to resume on Christmas Eve 1990 after a long hiatus); at other times walk round to the small door in the southwest corner. The cathedral is on Nha Tho, one of the most fashionable streets in the city for shopping, dining and drinking.
Ly Quoc Su Pagoda
Walking north from St Joseph’s Cathedral along Ly Quoc Su brings you to Ly Quoc Su Pagoda, a small pagoda with a genuinely interesting collection of statues. Ly Quoc Su (sometimes also known as Minh Khong) was a Buddhist teacher, healer and royal adviser who cured the hallucinating King Ly Than Tong of believing he was a tiger. Quoc Su’s image resides alongside that of the white-bearded Tu Dao Hanh on the principal altar of this twelfth-century temple – when it later became a pagoda they simply added a few Buddhas behind. In front of the altar, two groups of statues face each other across the prayer floor: four secular, female figures sit opposite three perfectly inscrutable mandarins of the nineteenth century, clothed in rich red lacquer.
From Ly Quoc Su, make your way back to Hoan Kiem Lake and continue northwards to where Thuy Ta café offers respite from the traffic and a fine place to relax.
Giant Turtles at Hoan Kiem Lake
At least one hardy giant turtle still lives in the lake. It was captured and examined in early 2011 when wounds on its leg and head were identified, though it still managed to elude captors twice before being netted. It is a rare species of enormous, soft-shelled turtle known as rafetus swinhoei, of which there are only a few other specimens in Vietnam and China. This one weighed in at around 200kg and scientists estimate its age at around 80-100 years, but of course, Hanoians believe it is one and the same creature from legends that supposedly took Ly Thai To’s sword over five hundred years ago.
The turtle you’re most likely to see, however, is a heavily varnished specimen captured in 1968. It’s preserved and on view on a small island behind Den Son Ngoc, also accessible via The Huc Bridge. Beside the bridge stands a nine-metre-high obelisk, the Writing Brush Tower, on which three outsized Chinese characters proclaim, “a pen to write on the blue sky”.
Featured Image: Tortoise Tower at Hoan Kiem Lake © Creative Family / Shutterstock