The name the Basque people give to their own land, Euskal Herria, covers the three Basque provinces that today form the Comunidad Autónoma del País Vasco (in Basque, "Euskadi") – Gipuzkoa, Bizkaia and Araba – as well as Navarra (Nafarroa) and part of southwestern France. Much of this region is immensely beautiful, and especially so along the coast, where green and thickly forested mountains, interspersed with stark individual hills, seem in places to emerge from the sea itself. Yes, it often rains, and much of the time the countryside is shrouded in a fine mist, but so long as you don't mind the occasional shower, summer here offers a glorious escape from the unrelenting heat of the south.
Despite the heavy industrialization that has helped to make this one of the wealthiest areas in Spain, Euskal Herria is remarkably unspoiled – neat and quiet inland, rugged and wild along the coast. San Sebastián is a major resort city, with superb if crowded beaches and magnificent food, but lesser-known, similarly attractive villages line the coast all the way to Bilbao, home to the magnificent Museo Guggenheim. Inland, Pamplona boasts its exuberant Fiestas de San Fermín, while many other destinations have charms of their own, from the drama of the Pyrenees to the laidback elegance of Vitoria-Gasteiz.
Look out especially for quiet rural accommodation options, here in abundance thanks to the Basque government's nekazalturismoa (agroturismo) programme, which offers the opportunity to stay in traditional Basque farmhouses and private homes, usually in areas of outstanding beauty, at very reasonable cost (€45–75). In Navarra, as in much of the country, these are known as casas rurales, or landa exteak. You can get details from the region's many excellent local tourist offices (which also handle bookings), or online at nekatur.net, and, for Navarra, casasruralesnavarra.com.
While a reasonable network of buses connects all the sizeable towns, the easiest way to get around the Basque Country is by car. In particular, if you want to follow the coast, the dramatic hills and cliffs mean there isn't always a shoreline road; with public transport especially you have to keep returning to the main roads way inland. Train services are relatively poor. San Sebastián lies on a major route to and from France, which also passes through Vitoria-Gasteiz, but Bilbao is off the main line on a minor spur, and direct trains between Bilbao and San Sebastián are much slower than the equivalent buses. Bilbao is, however, the eastern terminus of the entirely separate FEVE narrow-gauge railway (feve.es), which follows the Atlantic coast west to Santander, Oviedo and beyond.
When the Romans invaded, they defeated a group called the Aquitani, who inhabited large areas of southwestern Gaul and northern Iberia, and spoke an ancestral version of Basque. However, they allowed the wild tribes known as the Vascones, who lived in the mountains of Euskal Herria, to keep their language and independence in return for allowing free passage and trading rights.
Later rulers were not so accommodating. Successive Visigoth kings tried and failed to eradicate the Basques. The Moors conquered the lowlands of Araba (Alava in Castilian) and Navarra as far north as Pamplona, but never gained a grip on the mountainous north. This new enemy, however, forced the Basques, hitherto a collection of more or less allied tribes, to unite. In 818, a Basque leader, Iñigo Iñiguez, was proclaimed the first ruler of the Kingdom of Navarre. In due course, the Basques embraced Christianity, while retaining ancestral customs including the ancient laws by which they governed themselves. First written down (in Castilian) during the twelfth century, these laws and privileges, maintained as oral traditions, were known as fueros.
Once the Reconquest was complete and Spain was being welded into a single kingdom, Navarre (by now ruled by French monarchs) was a missing piece. The Reyes Católicos persuaded the Bizkaians, Gipuzkoans and Arabans to split away from Navarre and join Castile. In return the fueros would be respected, including exemption from customs duty, conscription and central taxation. Under duress, the Navarrese agreed to the same deal, and by 1512 all four territories were subject to rule from Madrid. The Basques have jealously defended their right to self-government ever since.
Basque determination for self-rule increased when the Liberals, victors in the Carlist War, abolished the fueros in 1876. The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries saw the emergence of Basque nationalism as an ideology. The conservative Basque Nationalist Party (PNV) was founded in 1895 by Sabino Arana, the son of a Carlist shipbuilder.
At the start of the Civil War, the Nationalists seized control of predominantly conservative Navarra and Araba, while Bizkaia and Gipuzkoa, dominated by left-leaning industrial cities, supported the Republic. After Navarrese troops captured Irun in 1936 and cut off the northern Republican zone from France, San Sebastián rapidly surrendered. An autonomous Basque government, in practice limited to Bizkaia, lasted just nine months. Franco finally conquered the Basques in June 1937, after a vicious campaign that included the infamous German bombing of Gernika.
After the war, Franco's boot went in hard. Public use of the Basque language was forbidden and central control was asserted with the gun. But state violence succeeded only in nurturing a new resistance, ETA (Euskadi ta Askatasuna – "Basque Homeland and Freedom"), founded in 1959. Its most spectacular success was the assassination in Madrid of Franco's right-hand man and probable successor, Admiral Carrero Blanco in 1973.
Things started to change following the transition to democracy. The new constitution granted the Basques limited autonomy, with their own parliament and tax collection. Today, there's a regional police force, the red-bereted ertzaintza, and the Basque language is taught in schools and universities. The Basque flag (ikurriña) flies everywhere. Basque demands for independence have not ended, however, and the violence has continued. Since 1968, ETA is estimated to have killed around 850 people, with targets ranging from members of the Spanish police and armed forces to Basque businessmen and politicians, academics, journalists, the tourist industry and random civilians. At the time of writing, however, the latest in a long succession of ceasefires was appearing to hold, while Basque separatists were achieving electoral success as part of the Bildu coalition, raising hopes of a new era of peace.