Travel Guide Namibia

A vast land of mesmerizing landscapes, abundant wildlife and an astonishing array of natural wonders, Namibia promises adventure. Its defining feature is the Namib, an ancient desert that runs the entire 1500km of the country’s wind-lashed coastline. Encompassing towering dunes, dramatic mountains and lichen-encrusted gravel plains, it’s populated by desert-adapted beasts, with flamingos and colonial German architecture bringing splashes of colour to the waterfront. Capital Windhoek has a distinctly European feel, but you won’t want to linger too long; from here tempting arterial roads reach out to geological wonders in the south, and the beguiling Kalahari to the east, inhabited by some of Africa’s oldest peoples. To the north lie game-rich reserves and the majority of Namibia’s elusive population, from where the country’s lush panhandle lures you to within touching distance of Victoria Falls.

Arguably the most impressive natural wonder in Namibia is the Fish River Canyon, in the far south, which affords breathtaking views across a deep serpentine chasm in the Earth’s crust, while in the northeast, the impressive sandstone Waterberg Plateau stands sentinel over the surrounding bushveld. At the very north of Namibia, the species-rich wetlands of the Zambezi Region, a 450km arm of luxuriant subtropical forest that stretches out above Botswana towards Zimbabwe and Victoria Falls, provide a wholly different landscape.

While, traditionally, tourists have been drawn to Namibia for its wilderness terrains, the country is now also attracting attention for its wildlife; specifically, the increasing numbers of rare large mammals that are thriving in the semi-arid areas. Beyond the game-heavy confines of Etosha – Namibia’s premier national park – the world’s largest concentrations of free-roaming cheetah stalk the plains, while desert-adapted elephant and black rhino lumber along the valleys and riverbeds of northwest Namibia. In many cases these beasts are protected by conservationists working hand in hand with local communities – communities that are also beginning to open up to visitors, who can learn more about these cultures and lifestyles.

The Namib also hosts many extraordinary succulent plants and dune-dwelling endemics – especially lizards – that have adapted to the harsh conditions, and which have featured in many a nature documentary. In complete contrast, the lush, subtropical Zambezi Region holds almost three-quarters of the country’s bird species and many large mammals not seen elsewhere in the country.

As with most other countries in Africa, Namibia’s socio-political landscape has been indelibly shaped by colonialism, specifically the regimes of Germany and then South Africa, which resulted in the imposition of apartheid and the Namibian War of Independence that lasted over twenty years. While the adverse effects were considerable – and some still endure – it’s true to say that Namibia’s cuisine has benefited from its colonial past, from cream-laden German cakes, tasty filled brötchen and good coffee, to the dried, cured meats favoured by South Africans. Namibia was one of the last countries in Africa to gain independence – in 1990 – and it has taken time for the government to realize the country’s tourism potential, just as foreign tourists have been slow to appreciate Namibia’s haunting scenery, fascinating wildlife and rich cultural diversity. Now, Namibia is becoming established on the tourist map: high-quality, affordable lodges and campgrounds are sprouting up, often in conjunction with local conservancies; rural communities are inviting visitors to learn about their cultures, traditions and modern-day challenges; and new ways of experiencing Namibia are constantly being devised, from skydiving or hot-air ballooning over the desert to tracking rhino or kayaking with crocs.

Where to go in Namibia

International flights arrive at Windhoek, the country’s capital and transport hub, conveniently located in the centre of Namibia. A small city, more akin to a provincial town, it’s a pleasant spot to wander around for a couple of days, taking in the few modest sights, browsing the shops and sampling the local cuisine. From here, you need to plot your route carefully; although the tarred and gravel roads are maintained to high standards in Namibia, the distances are vast, which means you can easily end up spending most of your time getting to places. That said, much of Namibia’s appeal lies in its vast, uninhabited landscapes, which are best appreciated by driving through them.

Don't know where to start preparing for your trip to Namibia? Our Namibia itineraries can be your starting point.

Most first-time visitors, and those short of time, travel a circuit round central and northern Namibia, but with a quick detour – by Namibian standards – southwest to the Sossusvlei area of the Namib-Naukluft National Park, where the towering apricot sand dunes that change colour with the light are truly spectacular. From here many visitors head northwest to enjoy the milder climate and colonial architecture of the country’s top coastal resort, Swakopmund, which lies almost due west of Windhoek. Though no beach hangout – it’s too cold to swim most of the year – it’s a fascinating place, surrounded by dunes that you can explore on foot, on horseback or on a quad bike; it’s also rapidly emerging as a centre for adventure sports, such as skydiving and sand-boarding. A short excursion south takes you to Walvis Bay, the country’s main port, where you can consort with seals, dolphins and pelicans on the lagoon.

Moving north, organized tours and self-drive travellers often take in the Cape Cross seal colony before cutting inland via the desolate, mist-shrouded Skeleton Coast National Park to Damaraland, where some of the country’s most evocative scenery lies. At the southerly limit of this region, the domed Erongo Mountains and the pointed Spitzkoppe – both composed of giant burnished granite slabs – provide wonderful hiking and birdwatching opportunities, as well as some examples of San rock paintings. Far better preserved paintings are to be found at the Brandberg, Namibia’s largest massif, further north, while the continent’s oldest rock engravings at Twyfelfontein give fascinating insights into the spiritual world of some of Africa’s oldest inhabitants. The wonderful lodges in the area make the most of the picturesque scenery and offer the chance to spot desert-adapted elephant and rhino.

It’s a bit of a detour to the mountainous northwest, where the rocky, reddish-brown land and the frontier town of Opuwo are home to the semi-nomadic Himba; a further two-hour drive north takes you up to the scenic Epupa Falls, on the Kunene River, which marks the border with Angola. Many miss out this area and head straight to Etosha National Park – indisputably the top wildlife-watching spot – where they spend a few days before returning to Windhoek, sometimes via the scenic Waterberg Plateau. With more time, a journey northeast to the verdant Zambezi Region in the panhandle reaps many rewards: lush broad-leaved forests, gliding rivers and plentiful wildlife roaming in unfenced reserves. The less-visited far south is also worth the trek for its remarkable geological fault, the Fish River Canyon, from where it’s a few hours’ drive to the quaint historical German town of Lüderitz on the coast. A trip to the sinuous Orange River, which marks the border with South Africa, provides welcome respite from the relentless heat of the interior: an opportunity to paddle through beautiful scenery and indulge in some gentle birdwatching.

Visitors with more time should consider heading southeast to gaze at the rippling red dunes of the Kalahari, even popping over the South African border into the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, where vast herds of large mammals follow ancient migration routes. Alternatively, round Tsumkwe, in the northern reaches of this semi-desert, an increasing number of San communities are opening up to visitors, keen to share their ancient traditions and survival skills.

Top image © Przemyslaw Skibinski/Shutterstock

Fact file

• Namibia is the second least densely populated country in the world after Mongolia, with only 2.68 inhabitants per square kilometre.

• Rugby union has been played in Namibia since 1916, and the national team has qualified for the last five world cups.

• On account of low population density and low light pollution, the country’s glittering night sky is one of the world’s top stargazing destinations.

• Though social inequalities are slowly improving, the richest ten percent of the population – including the six percent white minority – receive over half the national income.

• The Kunene Region has the world’s greatest concentration of black rhinos.

• Over a tenth of the Namibian population – from the Nama, Damara and San peoples – speak a click language.

• Etosha Pan is Africa’s largest saline pan, a vast white sheet visible from space.

• Namibia’s all-time greatest athlete, Frankie Fredericks, held the indoor world 200m record for eighteen years before Usain Bolt broke it in 2014.

Opening hours and public holidays

Shops usually open at 9am, closing around 5.30pm. They also often close for lunch and on Saturdays shut down for the weekend at 1pm. Large supermarkets tend to open earlier (7–8am) and remain open until 7–8pm Monday to Friday; they may operate reduced trading hours on Saturday and Sunday, though some remain closed on Sunday. Government offices are open Monday to Friday 8am–5pm, often taking a lunch hour at 1pm.

Namibia doesn’t have many public holidays, and if the date falls on a Sunday then the holiday is usually held on the following Monday. During these days most government offices, businesses and shops close. Many businesses and government departments also effectively close from mid-December to mid-January for the summer holidays.

Public holidays

January 1

New Year’s Day

March 21

Independence Day


Good Friday and Easter Monday

May 1

Workers Day

May 4

Cassinga Day. Commemorates the attack on a SWAPO base in Angola by the SADF in 1978, which killed 600.


Ascension Day

May 26

Africa Day. Remembers the foundation of the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) in 1963.

August 26

Heroes’ Day. Recognized by the UN as Namibia Day, which commemorates the official start of the War of Independence in 1966.

December 10

International Human Rights Day

December 25

Christmas Day

December 26

Family Day

Herero day

On the weekend closest to August 23, Herero Day or Red Flag Heroes’ Day (not to be confused with the national Heroes’ Day), Herero gather in their thousands in Okahandja to commemorate their deceased chiefs, and, in particular Chief Samuel Maharero, who led the revolt against the German colonial army. The chosen date coincides with the reburial of his remains here, following his death in 1923 in South Africa, where he’d been living in exile. Since then, Herero have congregated annually for a three-day gathering, the culmination of which is a procession round various grave sites of Herero chiefs, followed by a church service. This homage to the dead, which has since become a symbol of resistance against colonialism, is an impressive sight, with the Herero women decked out in their voluminous crimson missionary-era dresses and “cow-horn” headgear, and the men marching in their military-style uniforms according to their paramilitary regiments. Followers of other flags meet at other times of the year in other locations; for example, the White Flag Herero gather in Omaruru in August. The Green Flag Mbanderu also meet in Okahandja on the weekend nearest June 11.

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Rough Guides Editors

written by
Rough Guides Editors

updated 07.05.2024

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