Travel Tips Malaysia for planning and on the go

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More travel information for Malaysia

Climate

The climate in Malaysia remains remarkably consistent throughout the year, with typical daytime temperatures of around 30°. However, the northeast monsoon brings torrential rains and heavy seas between September and February, concentrating its attentions on the west coast of the Peninsula in September and October, and on the east coast after that.

Costs

Anyone entering Malaysia from Thailand will find that costs are slightly higher – both food and accommodation are more expensive – whereas travellers arriving from Indonesia will find prices a little lower overall. Travelling in a group naturally helps keep costs down. The region affords some savings for senior citizens, and an ISIC student card might occasionally pay dividends.

Note that bargaining is routine throughout Malaysia when buying stuff in markets or small shops, though you don’t haggle for meals or accommodation.

In Peninsular Malaysia you can scrape by on £12/US$20/RM60 per day staying in dorms, eating at hawker stalls and getting around by bus. Double that and you’ll be able to exist in relative comfort without thinking too hard about occasionally treating yourself. Over in east Malaysia, where accommodation and tours tend to cost a little more, the minimum daily outlay is more like £16/US$25/RM80.

Crime and personal safety

If you lose something in Malaysia, you’re more likely to have someone run after you with it than run away. Nevertheless, don’t become complacent: pickpockets and snatch-thieves frequent Malaysia’s more touristed cities, and theft from dormitories by other tourists is fairly common. If you have to report a crime, be sure to get a copy of the police report for insurance purposes.

Sensible precautions include carrying your passport and other valuables in a concealed money belt, and using the safety deposit box provided by many guesthouses and hotels. Take a photocopy of the relevant pages of your passport, too, in case it’s lost or stolen. If you use travellers’ cheques, keep a separate record of the serial numbers, together with a note of which ones you’ve cashed.

It’s worth repeating here that it’s very unwise to have anything to do with illegal drugs of any description in Malaysia.

To report a crime in Malaysia, head for the nearest police station, where someone will invariably speak English. In many major tourist spots, specific tourist police stations are geared up to problems faced by foreign travellers.

Restrictions on contact between people of the opposite sex (such as the offence of khalwat, or “close proximity”) and eating in public during daylight hours in the Ramadan month apply to Muslims only.

Electricity

Mains voltage in Malaysia is 230 volts, so any equipment using 110 volts will need a converter. The plugs in all three countries have three square prongs like British ones.

Entry requirements

Nationals of the UK, Ireland, US, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa do not need visas in advance to stay in Malaysia, and it’s easy to extend your permission to stay. That said, check with the relevant embassy or consulate, as the rules on visas are complex and subject to change. Ensure that your passport is valid for at least six months from the date of your trip, and has several blank pages for entry stamps.

Upon arrival in Malaysia, citizens of Australia, Canada, the UK, Ireland, US, New Zealand and South Africa receive a passport stamp entitling them to a 90-day stay. Visitors who enter via Sarawak, however, receive a 30-day stamp. Visa requirements for various nationalities are listed on wmalaysia.visahq.com.

It’s straightforward to extend your permit through the Immigration Department, who have offices (listed in the Guide) in Kuala Lumpur and major towns. Visitors from the above countries can also cross into Singapore or Thailand and back to be granted a fresh Malaysia entry stamp.

Tourists travelling from the Peninsula to east Malaysia (Sarawak and Sabah) must be cleared again by immigration; visitors to Sabah can remain as long as their original entry stamp is valid, but arriving in Sarawak from whichever territory generates a new 30-day stamp, which can be easily renewed.

When you arrive, you will normally be given a lengthy landing card to complete; hang onto the small departure portion of the card for when you leave Malaysia.

Embassies and consulates

Australia 7 Perth Ave, Yarralumla, Canberra, ACT 6000 t02 6120 0600, wmalaysia.org.au.

Brunei No. 61, Simpang 336, Kg Sungai Akar, Jalan Kebangsaan, P.O. Box 2826, Bandar Seri Begawan t02 381095.

Canada 60 Boteler St, Ottawa, ON K1N 8Y7 t613 241 5182.

Indonesia Jalan H.R. Rasuna Said, Kav. X/6, No. 1–3 Kuningan, Jakarta Selatan 12950 t021 5224947.

Ireland Shelbourne House, Level 3A–5A, Ballsbridge, Dublin 4 t01 667 7280.

New Zealand 10 Washington Ave, Brooklyn, Wellington t04 385 2439.

Singapore 301 Jervois Rd t6325 0111.

South Africa 1007 Schoeman St, Arcadia, Pretoria 0083 t012 342 5990.

Thailand 35 South Sathorn Rd, Bangkok 10120 t02 629 6800.

UK 45 Belgrave Square, London SW1X 8QT t020 7235 8033, wmalaysia.embassyhomepage.com.

US 3516 International Court, NW Washington, DC 20008 t202 572 9700.

Customs allowances

Malaysia’s duty-free allowances are 200 cigarettes or 225g of tobacco, and 1 litre of wine, spirits or liquor. There’s no customs clearance for passengers travelling from Singapore or Peninsular Malaysia to East Malaysia, nor for people passing between Sabah and Sarawak.

Gay and lesbian travellers

Though Malaysia’s largest cities have long had a discreet gay scene, the public profile of gays and lesbians was until recently still summed up by the old “don’t ask, don’t tell” maxim. However, cyberspace has helped galvanize gay people in both countries, providing a virtual refuge within which to socialize and campaign. While the environment in Malaysia is always going to be conservative – illustrated by the fact that Brokeback Mountain failed to be screened there, and by occasional raids on gay saunas – the Malaysian government has no obvious appetite, Islamically inspired or otherwise, to clamp down on the existing, limited gay nightlife.

For all the general loosening up over the years, it’s very much a case of two steps forward and one step back. Colonial-era laws criminalizing anal and oral sex remains on the statute book in Malaysia, and what gay-related campaigning exists tends to be channelled into the relatively uncontentious issue of HIV AIDS. Needless to say, all this makes legal recognition of gay partnerships a distant prospect.

This mixed picture shouldn’t deter gay visitors from getting to know and enjoy the local scene, such as it is. A small number of gay establishments are reviewed in this guide, and more listings are available on wwww.fridae.asia and the Bangkok-based wwww.utopia-asia.com.

Insurance

A typical travel insurance policy usually provides cover for the loss of bags, tickets and – up to a certain limit – cash or cheques, as well as cancellation or curtailment of your journey. Some policy premiums include dangerous sports; in Malaysia, for example, this can mean scuba diving, whitewater rafting or trekking (notably in the Maliau Basin of Sabah). Always ascertain whether medical coverage will be paid out as treatment proceeds or only after return home, and whether there’s a 24-hour medical emergency number. When securing baggage cover, make sure that the per-article limit will cover your most valuable possession. If you need to make a claim, you should keep receipts for medicines and medical treatment, and in the event you have anything stolen, you must obtain an official statement from the police.

Internet

Internet cafés and shops can be found in all Malaysian cities and large towns, often in malls or in upstairs premises along central streets, and most backpacker guesthouses have free wi-fi connections. While many serve the odd coffee or coke, the emphasis often isn’t on beverages or even getting online, but on networked gaming, the terminals swamped by kids playing noisy shoot-em-ups late into the night. Periodic crackdowns temporarily compel the internet cafés to keep sensible hours and, it’s hoped, the youths in their beds. At least the cafés do provide reliable internet access, costing RM3–6 per hour in practically all cases.

For unlimited Wi-Fi on the go whilst travelling Malaysia, buy a Skyroam Solis, which works in 130+ countries at one flat daily rate, paid for on a pay-as-you-go basis. You can connect up to five devices at once. Prices start from as little as €5 a day.

Laundry

Most Malaysian towns have laundries (dobi) where you can have clothes washed cheaply and quickly, according to weight (typically RM3 a kilo), picking them up later in the day or early the next day. Some hostels and guesthouses have washing machines that guests can use for a small charge. Dry-cleaning services are less common, though any hotel of a decent standard will be able to oblige.

Living in Malaysia

Opportunities for non-residents to find short-term employment in Malaysia are few and far between. On an unofficial basis, helpers are often required in guesthouses; the wages for such tasks are low, but board and lodging are often included. On a more formal level, KL in particular is home to large communities of skilled expats with work permits, secured by their employer. In Malaysia expats can still expect elevated salaries,.

English-language-teaching qualifications are in demand by language schools in both countries, while qualified diving instructors can also find work in Malaysia. There are also a few volunteer schemes, mainly focusing on nature conservation fieldwork, though they’re seldom cheap to join.

Study and work programmes

AFS Intercultural Programswafs.org. Community service schemes in Malaysia.

Earthwatch Institutewearthwatch.org. A range of nature-conservation projects; past projects include bat conservation and climate-change studies in Malaysia.

Fulbright Programwwww.fulbright.org.uk. Regular opportunities for US citizens to spend several months teaching English in rural Malaysia, without requiring teaching experience.

Wild Asiawwildasia.org. Conservation group working to protect natural areas and promote responsible tourism and resource use across the region; offers internships.

W-O-Xworangutanproject.com. Orang-utan conservation in Malaysia, mostly at rehabilitation centres or upriver locations in Borneo.

Mail

Malaysia has a well-organized postal service operated by Pos Malaysia (t1300 300 300, wwww.pos.com.my), whose website details postage rates, express mail and courier (“PosLaju”) services and so forth. Expect airmail delivery to take one to two weeks depending on the destination.

Maps

The best commercially available maps of Malaysia are the city and regional maps published by the Johor Bahru-based World Express Mapping, sold in many local bookshops. Online mapping offered by the usual internet giants tends to be littered with inaccuracies, especially with regard to Malaysian road names. Most Malaysian tourist offices have their own free maps of the local area, though these are of decidedly variable quality and offer little that the maps in this guide don’t already include. Whichever maps you use, be aware that the high rate of highway construction and road alterations in rural and urban areas alike means that inaccuracies plague most maps almost as soon as they appear..

Money

Malaysia’s currency is the ringgit (pronounced ring-git and abbreviated to “RM”), divided into 100 sen. Notes come in RM1, RM5, RM10, RM20, RM50 and RM100 denominations. Coins are currently minted in 5 sen, 10 sen, 20 sen and 50 sen denominations, with 1 sen coins still in circulation. You sometimes hear the word “dollar” used informally to refer to the ringgit.

At the time of writing, the exchange rate was around RM3 to US$1 and RM5 to £1. Rates are posted daily in banks and exchange kiosks, and published in the press.

Banks

Major banks in Malaysia include Maybank, HSBC, Citibank, Standard Chartered, RHB Bank and CIMB Bank. Banking hours are generally Monday to Friday 9.30am to 4pm and Saturday 9.30 to 11.30am (closed on every first and third Sat of the month), though in the largely Muslim states of Kedah, Kelantan and Terengganu, Friday is a holiday and Sunday a working day. Banks in all sizeable towns and most tourist areas have ATMs; details are given through the Guide.

Licensed moneychangers’ kiosks, found in bigger towns all over the country, tend to open later, until around 6pm; some open at weekends and until 9pm, too. Some hotels will exchange money at all hours. Exchange rates tend to be more generous at moneychangers, though they don’t generally exchange travellers’ cheques.

You’re only likely to be really stuck for accessing money in remote rural areas; if, for example, you’re travelling upriver through the interior of Sabah or Sarawak, it’s a wise idea to carry a fair amount of cash, in smallish denominations.

Plastic

Credit and debit cards have limited uses in the region, except to pay for goods and services in upmarket locations – you won’t, for example, be able to use your Visa card at a local kedai kopi, though a café chain in Kuala Lumpur will likely accept it, as indeed might a guesthouse in either place. Watch out too for an ongoing spate of credit card fraud in Malaysia, involving data swiped in genuine transactions being extracted and used to create a duplicate of your card.

Opening hours and public holidays

In Malaysia, shops are open daily from around 9.30am to 7pm, though outlets in shopping centres and malls are typically open daily from 10am to 10pm. Government offices tend to work Monday to Friday from 8am to 4.15pm or 9am to 5pm, with an hour off for lunch, except on Friday when the break lasts from 12.15 to 2.45pm to allow Muslims to attend prayers. Note that in the states of Kedah, Kelantan and Terengganu, the working week runs from Sunday to Thursday, with Friday and Saturday as days off.

Opening hours for temples and mosques are given in the text where they keep to a formal schedule (often not the case).

Public and school holidays

As a guide, public holiday dates for 2012 are given here (the relevant government websites issue new lists for each year a few months in advance). Note that Muslim holidays (marked with an asterisk) move earlier by ten or eleven days each year, and that precise dates depend on the sighting of the new moon, which determines when each month of the Muslim calendar begins. Note also that each Malaysian state has its own additional holidays, which could be to do with its sultan’s birthday or an Islamic (in states with a largely Muslim population) or tribal event, such as Gawai in June in Sarawak. Some of the holidays here are marked by special festivities.

It pays to be aware of not just public holidays but also local school holidays, as Malaysian accommodation can be hard to come by during these periods. In Malaysia, schools get a week off in mid-March and late August, and two weeks off at the start of June, with a long break from mid-November to the end of the year.

Public holidays (2012)

January 1 New Year’s Day

January 23 Chinese New Year

February 5 Birthday of the Prophet Muhammad*

May 1 Labour Day

May 5 Vesak Day

June 2 Yang Dipertuan Agong’s Birthday

August 19 & 20 Hari Raya Puasa*

August 31 National Day

September 16 Malaysia Day

October 26 Hari Raya Haji (or Korban)*

November 13 Deepavali

November 15 Maal Hijrah (the Muslim New Year)*

December 25 Christmas Day

Phones

Malaysia has a comprehensive mobile network. If your phone is unlocked and GSM compatible (likely unless you’re from the US), you can buy a local SIM card from corner shops and 7–11 stores, which will of course give you a new number. Top up value at the same outlets; you either get a receipt with a pin number on it for you to dial and activate the recharge, or the shop staff will do this for you. If you need to buy a mobile (known locally as “hand phones”), outlets specializing in them are easily found, even in small towns.

There are public phones in most Malaysian towns. Local calls are very cheap at just 10 sen for three minutes, but for long-distance calls, it can be more convenient to buy a phonecard, from service stations, 7–Eleven outlets and newsagents. Your best bet is to use a card such as iTalk (wtm.com.my; from RM10), which enables you to make discounted calls from the line in your hotel room as well as from payphones.

The two big players in the mobile phone market are Hotlink/Maxis (whotlink.com.my) and Celcom (wcelcom.com.my), with the smaller DiGi (wdigi.com.my) bringing up the rear. On the Peninsula you’ll usually get a signal on both coasts, along highways and major roads, and on touristy islands. In the forested interior, as a rule your phone will work in any town large enough to be served by express trains (as well as at the Taman Negara headquarters). Sabah and Sarawak coverage is much patchier, focusing on cities and the populated river valleys, though even in the Kelabit Highlands mobile calls are possible.

Mobile tariffs can be complex, though you can expect calls made to other Malaysian numbers to cost no more than RM0.50 per minute.

Time

Malaysia is eight hours ahead of Universal Time (GMT), all year. This close to the equator, you can rely on dawn being around 6.30am in the Peninsula, dusk at around 7.30pm; in Borneo both happen roughly an hour earlier. Not taking into account daylight saving time elsewhere, Malaysia is two hours behind Sydney, thirteen hours ahead of US Eastern Standard Time and sixteen hours ahead of US Pacific Standard Time.

Tipping

Tipping is seldom necessary in Malaysia. When eating out at a proper restaurant, it’s customary to tip if a service charge isn’t included, though note that you are never required to tip in kedai kopis or kopitiams. It’s not necessary to tip taxi drivers either, unless they have gone out of their way to be helpful. Otherwise you might want to offer a modest tip to a hotel porter or hairdresser, or a tour guide who has been exceptional.

Tourist information

Tourism Malaysia (wtourism.gov.my) has offices in most state capitals. These are complemented by tourist offices, sometimes called Tourism Information Centres, run by state governments and again found in most state capitals. Such offices are generally helpful, if not widely knowledgeable: they have plenty of glossy brochures to hand out, but information here (and on websites) is often patchy, if not downright inaccurate. For out-of-the-way attractions you’re better off contacting local accommodation or tour operators – phone is best, as emails often elicit slow responses.

Malaysian state tourism contacts

Johort07 223 4935, wtourismjohor.com.

Kelantant09 748 5534, wtic.kelantan.gov.my

Labuant087 422622, wlabuantourism.com.my.

Melakat06 281 4803, wwww.melaka.gov.my.

Pahangt09 516 1007, wpahangtourism.com..

Penangt04 262 0202, tourismpenang.net.my

Sabaht088 212 121, wsabahtourism.com.

Sarawakt082 423 600, wsarawaktourism.com.

Selangort03 5511 1122, wtourismselangor.my.

Terengganut09 622 1553, wterengganutourism.com.

Other tourist information sources

wallmalaysia.info Excellent tourism compendium put together by The Star newspaper, featuring travel-related news stories, state-by-state accounts of sights and background articles on culture and events.

wjourneymalaysia.com Comprehensive, if patchy, coverage of just about everywhere and everything for tourists to see and do in Malaysia. Especially strong on outdoor activities.

wwww.malaysiasite.nl Run by an enthusiastic expat, this site provides thumbnail sketches of popular destinations around Malaysia, including some out-of-the-way locations. Practical info isn’t always current, but it’s a useful resource with plenty of photos.

wvirtualmalaysia.com The tourism portal of Malaysia’s Ministry of Tourism, with coverage of sights, tourism-related directories and assorted packages on sale.

wwildasia.org Dedicated to sustainable and responsible tourism, this Malaysia-based site features numerous articles on Southeast Asia with plenty on Malaysia itself, of course, including descriptions of forest reserves and dive sites, plus a list of the more environmentally aware resorts.

Travellers with disabilities

Malaysia makes few provisions for travellers with disabilities. Life is made a lot easier if you can afford the more upmarket hotels, which usually have disabled provision, and to shell out for taxis and the odd domestic flight. Similarly, the more expensive international airlines tend to be better equipped to get you there in the first place: MAS, British Airways, KLM, Singapore and Qantas all carry aisle wheelchairs and have at least one toilet adapted for disabled passengers. However, few tour operators in the region accommodate the needs of those with disabilities.

In Malaysia, wheelchair users will have a hard time negotiating the uneven pavements in most towns and cities, and find it difficult to board buses, trains, ferries and the LRT metro system in Kuala Lumpur, none of which has been adapted for wheelchairs. The situation is similar if not worse in east Malaysia, with little provision for disabled travellers.

Contacts for travellers with disabilities

Malaysian Confederation of the Disabledt03 7956 2300, emcd_dpimalaysia@yahoo.com. A member of Disabled Peoples International, working for equal opportunities for disabled people in Malaysia.

Travelling with children

Malaysia is a very child-friendly country in which to travel. Disposable nappies and powdered milk are easy to find (fresh milk is sold in supermarkets), and bland Chinese soups and rice dishes, or bakery fare, are ideal for systems unaccustomed to spicy food. Many restaurants and the slicker kedai kopis have high chairs, though only upmarket hotels provide baby cots or a baby-sitting service. However, rooms in the cheaper hotels can usually be booked with an extra bed for little extra cost. Children under 12 get into many attractions for half-price and enjoy discounts on buses and trains.

Health advice

No inoculations are required for visiting Malaysia, although the immigration authorities may require a yellow-fever vaccination certificate if you have transited an endemic area, normally Africa or South America, within the preceding six days.

It’s a wise precaution to visit your doctor no less than two months before you leave to check that you are up to date with your polio, typhoid, tetanus and hepatitis inoculations. Tap water is drinkable throughout Malaysia, although in rural areas it’s best to buy bottled water, which is widely available.

Medical problems

Levels of hygiene and medical care in Malaysia are higher than in much of Southeast Asia; with any luck, the most serious thing you’ll go down with is an upset stomach.

Heat problems

Travellers unused to tropical climates may suffer from sunburn and dehydration. The easiest way to avoid this is to restrict your exposure to the midday sun, use high-factor sun screens, wear sunglasses and a hat. You should also drink plenty of water and, if you do become dehydrated, keep up a regular intake of fluids. Rehydration preparations such as Dioralyte are handy; the DIY version is a handful of sugar with a good pinch of salt added to a litre of bottled water, which creates roughly the right mineral balance. Heat stroke is more serious and can require hospitalization: its onset is indicated by a high temperature, dry red skin and a fast pulse.

Stomach problems

The most common complaint is a stomach problem, which can range from a mild dose of diarrhoea to full-blown dysentery. The majority of stomach bugs may be unpleasant, but are unthreatening; however, if you notice blood or mucus in your stools, then you may have amoebic or bacillary dysentery, in which case you should seek medical help.

Stomach bugs are usually transmitted by contaminated food and water, so steer clear of raw vegetables and shellfish, always wash unpeeled fruit, and stick to freshly cooked foods, avoiding anything reheated. However careful you are, food that’s spicy or just different can sometimes upset your system, in which case, try to stick to relatively bland dishes and avoid fried food.

Dengue fever and malaria

The main mosquito-borne disease to be aware of – and the chief reason to take measures to avoid mosquito bites – is dengue fever. The disease is caused by a virus spread by the Aedes aegypti mosquito (which has distinctive white marks on its legs) and there are periodic outbreaks, not just in rural areas but also in the major cities. Symptoms include severe headaches, pain in the bones (especially of the back), fever and often a fine, red rash over the body. There’s no specific treatment, just plenty of rest, an adequate fluid intake and painkillers when required.

Although the risk of catching malaria is extremely low, consider protection against it if you think you might be staying in remote parts of Borneo for some time. Most doctors will advise taking antimalarial tablets which, though not completely effective in protecting against the disease, do considerably lessen the risk and can help reduce the symptoms should you develop the disease. Bear in mind you have to start taking the tablets before you arrive in a malaria zone, and continue taking them after you return – ask your doctor for the latest advice.

Altitude sickness

Altitude sickness (or acute mountain sickness) is a potentially life-threatening illness affecting people who ascend above around 3500m. Symptoms include dizziness, headache, shortness of breath, nausea; in severe cases it can lead to a swelling of the brain and lungs that can prove fatal. In Malaysia it’s only likely to be relevant to those climbing Mount Kinabalu (4095m), and most people report only mild symptoms at this altitude. If you’re affected, there’s little you can do apart from descending to lower altitude, although certain prescription drugs may temporarily control the symptoms.

Cuts, bites and stings

Wearing protective clothing when swimming, snorkelling or diving can help avoid sunburn and protect against any sea stings. Sea lice, minute creatures that cause painful though harmless bites are the most common hazard; more dangerous are jellyfish, whose stings must be doused with vinegar to deactivate the poison before you seek medical help.

Coral can also cause nasty cuts and grazes; any wounds should be cleaned and kept as dry as possible until properly healed. The only way to avoid well-camouflaged sea urchins and stone fish is by not stepping on the seabed: even thick-soled shoes don’t provide total protection against their long, sharp spines, which can be removed by softening the skin by holding it over a steaming pan of water.

As for mosquitoes, you can best avoid being bitten by covering up as much as is practical, and applying repellent to exposed flesh. Note that most repellents sold locally are based on citronella; if you want a repellent containing DEET, which some say is more effective, it’s best to buy it at home. Rural or beachside accommodation often features mosquito nets, and some places also provide slow-burning mosquito coils which generate a little smoke that apparently deters the insects.

For many people, the ubiquitous leech – whose bite is not actually harmful or painful – is the most irritating aspect to jungle trekking. Whenever there’s been rainfall, you can rely upon the leeches to come out. Always tuck your trousers into your socks and tie your bootlaces tight. The best anti-leech socks are made from calico and available in specialist stores. If you find the leeches are getting through, soak the outside of your socks and your boots in insect repellent.

Venomous snakes are not that common, and any that you might encounter will usually slink away. If you are unlucky enough to be bitten then remain still and call for an ambulance or get someone else to summon help. If it’s one of your limbs that has been bitten, ideally a pressure bandage should also be applied to slow the spread of any venom present.

Pharmacies, clinics and hospitals

Medical services in Malaysia are excellent; staff almost everywhere speak English and use up-to-date treatments. Details of pharmacies and hospitals are in the “Directory” sections of the Guide for cities and major towns.

Pharmacies stock a wide range of medicines and health-related items, from contraceptives to contact lens solution; opening hours are the same as for other shops. Pharmacists can recommend products for skin complaints or simple stomach problems, though it always pays to get a proper diagnosis.

Private clinics can be found even in small towns – your hotel or the local tourist office will be able to recommend a doctor. In Malaysia a consultation costs around RM30, not including the cost of any prescribed medication; keep the receipts for insurance-claim purposes. Finally, the emergency department of each town’s general hospital will see foreigners for a small fee, though obviously costs rise rapidly if continued treatment or overnight stays are necessary.

Combating leeches

Leeches are gruesome but pretty harmless creatures that almost all hikers will encounter. A tiny, muscular tube with teeth at one end, they lie dormant in rainforest leaf litter until, activated by your footfalls and body heat, they latch onto your boot, then climb until they find a way through socks and trousers and onto your skin. Their bites (about the size of a pinhead) are completely painless, but they bleed a lot and sometimes itch as they heal.

Keeping leeches off isn’t easy; they can get through all but the closest-mesh fabrics. Tights work (but get very hot), though some guides recommend simply wearing open shoes and shorts, so that you can see them – an approach that requires an advanced jungle mentality.

The quickest way to remove a leech is to repeatedly flick its head end with your fingernail. Otherwise salt, tiger balm or tobacco juice, rubbed onto the leech, will cause them to let go rapidly.

The media

Malaysia boasts plenty of newspapers, TV channels and radio stations serving up lively reportage of events, sports and entertainment, though don’t expect to come across hard-hitting or healthily sceptical coverage of domestic politics. The major media organizations are at least partly owned by the government.

Furthermore, the media are kept on their toes by a legal requirement that they must periodically renew their licence to publish. Thus the Sarawak Tribune was suspended indefinitely in 2006 after it reproduced the controversial Danish cartoons of the Prophet Muhammad; only in 2010 did it resume publication as the New Sarawak Tribune.

Given these circumstances, it’s no surprise that in the 2011/12 Press Freedom Index, issued by the pressure group Reporters Without Borders, Malaysia was far down the rankings at no. 122 – below much poorer nations not exactly noted for being exemplars of free speech, such as Mongolia and Lesotho. B

Foreign newspapers and magazines are sold in the main cities, and international TV channels are available via satellite and cable. That said, issues of foreign magazines containing pieces that displease the authorities have occasionally been banned.

If this all seems an unremittingly bleak picture, it should be said that coverage of Malaysia’s opposition parties has increased since they took power in several states in the 2008 general election. Furthermore, the advent of independent news websites and blogs has been a breath of fresh air in Malaysia. Elsewhere in cyberspace, it’s possible to turn up various YouTube clips of discussion forums and interviews with activists, offering an alternative take on local issues.

Newspapers, magazines and online news

Malaysia has English, Malay, Chinese and Tamil newspapers. Though Malaysia’s national dailies are available in towns in east Malaysia, locally published English-language papers such as the Borneo Post in Sarawak (wtheborneopost.com) and the Daily Express in Sabah (wdailyexpress.com.my) are more popular there.

  • Aliran Monthly wwww.aliran.com. Campaigning magazine with an avowed pro-human-rights stance.
  • Malaysia Insider wwww.themalaysiainsider.com. Considered more moderate than some of its online counterparts, the Insider provides intelligent news and commentary in English and Malay.
  • Malaysia Today wwww.malaysia-today.net. This news website and blog was thrust into the international spotlight after the man behind it, Raja Petra Kamarudin, was interned under Malaysia’s Internal Security Act for two months in 2008.
  • Malaysiakini wwww.malaysiakini.com. Invigorating reportage and opinion with an anti-establishment slant.
  • New Straits Times wwww.nst.com.my. Closely linked to the UMNO party, this offshoot of Singapore’s Straits Times was created after the island separated from the Federation. A tabloid, it offers a broad range of news, sports and arts coverage.
  • Sarawak Report wwww.sarawakreport.org. Not a Malaysian site – it’s run out of London – but worth a look for its hard-hitting coverage of issues such as logging, native peoples’ rights and the probity of Sarawak’s government.
  • The Star wwww.thestar.com.my. Founded by the MCA party, The Star is Malaysia’s best-selling English daily and has a separate Sarawak edition.

Television and radio

TV and radio in Malaysia is dominated by state-owned broadcaster RTM, which puts out programmes in several languages. Terrestrial television features an unexceptional mix of news, documentaries and dramas made locally and abroad, cookery and talk shows, Islamic discussions and so forth; radio is even less original and tends to be dominated by pop music and talk shows. Various foreign TV channels, including CNN, BBC World, National Geographic, ESPN Sports and Al Jazeera (which has its East Asian base in KL), are available on cable and satellite in Malaysia.

  • Cats FM wwww.catsfm.my. Kuching-based FM station offering music plus Sarawakian news; see the website for frequencies around the state.
  • RTM1 & RTM2 wwww.rtm.gov.my. Malaysia’s staple state-owned TV channels, with some programming in English, Chinese and Tamil. News in English is broadcast on RTM2 at 8pm daily.
  • Traxxfm wwww.traxxfm.net. Established RTM station with a mix of news and music in English, available on various frequencies around the Peninsula.
  • TV3 wwww.tv3.com.my. English and Malay news, drama and documentaries, plus some Chinese programmes. Along with the youth-oriented channels NTV7, 8TV and TV9, it’s part of the same conglomerate as the New Straits Times.
  • XFresh wwww.xfm.com.my. A good station for home-grown pop and rock music in Malay and English, though the patter is in Malay only. Audible in cities nationwide.

Drugs: a warning

In Malaysia, the possession of illegal drugs – hard or soft – carries a hefty prison sentence or even the death penalty. If you are arrested for drugs offences you can expect no mercy from the authorities and little help from your consular representatives. The simple advice, therefore, is not to have anything to do with drugs in any of these countries. Never agree to carry anything through customs for a third party.

The Rough Guide to Malaysia and related travel guides

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Travel advice for Malaysia

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