Whoso hath not seen Cairo hath not seen the world. Her dust is golden and her Nile a miracle holden; and her women are as Houris fair; puppets, beautiful pictures; her houses are palaces rare; her water is sweet and light and her mud a commodity and a medicine beyond compare.
The Arabian Nights
Cairo has been the Islamic world’s greatest city since the Mongols sacked Baghdad in 1258. Egyptians have two names for the city: Masr, meaning both the capital and the land of Egypt (for Egyptians abroad, “Masr” means Egypt, but within the country it means the capital), is a timeless name rooted in pharaonic civilization; the city’s other name, Al-Qahira (The Triumphant), is linked specifically to the Fatimid conquest which made it the capital of an Islamic empire embracing modern-day Libya, Tunisia, Palestine and Syria, but the name is rarely used in everyday speech.
In monumental terms the two names are symbolized by two dramatic landmarks: the Pyramids of Giza at the edge of the Western Desert, and the great Mosque of Mohammed Ali – the modernizer of Islamic Egypt – which broods atop the Citadel. Between these two monuments sprawls a vast city, the colour of sand and ashes, of diverse worlds and epochs and gross inequities. All is subsumed into an organism that somehow thrives in the terminal ward: medieval slums and Art Deco suburbs, garbage-pickers and marbled malls, donkey carts and limos, piousness and what Desmond Stewart calls “the oaths of men exaggerating in the name of God”. Cairo lives by its own contradictions. Its population is today estimated at around twenty million and is swollen by a further million commuters from the Delta and a thousand new migrants every day. An estimated half a million people reside in squatted cemeteries – the famous Cities of the Dead. The amount of green space per citizen has been calculated at thirteen square centimetres, not enough to cover a child’s palm. Whereas earlier travellers noted that Cairo’s air smelt “like hot bricks”, visitors now find throat-rasping air pollution, chiefly caused by traffic.
Cairo’s genius is to humanize these inescapable realities with social rituals. The rarity of public violence owes less to the armed police on every corner than to the dowshah: when conflicts arise, crowds gather, restraining both parties, encouraging them to rant, sympathizing with their grievances and then finally urging “Maalesh, maalesh” (“Never mind”). Everyday life is sweetened by flowery gestures and salutations; misfortunes evoke thanks for Allah’s dispensation (after all, things could be worse). Even the poorest can be respected for piety; in the mosque, millionaire and beggar kneel side by side.
Ancient Memphis, the first capital of pharaonic Egypt, was founded around 3100 BC across the river and to the south, but it was 2500 years before a sister city of priests and solar cults, known to posterity as ancient Heliopolis, flourished on the east bank. It took centuries of Persian, Greek and Roman rule to efface both cities, by which time a new fortified town had developed on the east side. Babylon-in-Egypt was the beginning of the tale of cities that culminates in modern Cairo, the first chapter of which is described under “Old Cairo”.
Babylon’s citizens, oppressed by foreign overlords, almost welcomed the army of Islam that conquered Egypt in 641. For strategic and spiritual reasons, their general, Amr, chose to found a new settlement beyond the walls of Babylon – Fustat, the “City of the Tent”, which evolved into a sophisticated metropolis.
Fatimid and Ayyubid Cairo
Under successive dynasties of caliphs who ruled the Islamic Empire from Iraq, three more cities were founded, each to the northeast of the previous one, which was either spurned or devastated. When the Shi’ite Fatimids took control in 969, they created an entirely new walled city – Al-Qahira – beyond this teeming, half-derelict conurbation. Fatimid Cairo formed the nucleus of the later, vastly expanded and consolidated capital that Saladin left to the Ayyubid dynasty in 1193. But the Ayyubids’ reliance on imported slave-warriors – the Mamlukes – brought about their downfall: eventually, the Mamlukes simply seized power for themselves, ushering in a new era.
Mamluke and Ottoman Cairo
Mamluke Cairo encompassed all the previous cities, Saladin’s Citadel (where the sultans dwelt), the northern port of Bulaq and vast cemeteries and rubbish tips beyond the city walls. Mamluke sultans like Baybars, Qalaoun, Barquq and Qaitbey erected mosques, mausoleums and caravanserais that still ennoble what is now known in English as “Islamic Cairo”. The Islamic Cairo history section relates their stories, the Turkish takeover, the decline of Ottoman Cairo and the rise of Mohammed Ali, who began the modernization of the city.
Under Ismail, the most profligate of Mohammed Ali’s successors, a new, increasingly European Cairo arose beside the Nile – see the “Central Cairo” section. By 1920, the city’s area was six times greater than that of medieval Cairo, and since then its residential suburbs have expanded relentlessly.
When revolution hit Egypt during the Arab Spring of 2011, Cairo was of course its epicentre, with events in Tahrir Square in particular an inspiration for the entire Arab world. Most of the events of that revolt played out in the square, on 6th October Bridge, and in the streets of Qasr al-Aini, in particular around the Interior Ministry, whose control was vital to the military in their bid to rein in the revolution and cling onto power.
Top image © Prin Adulyatham/Shutterstock
Cairene men have socialized in hole-in-the-wall coffee houses, or ’ahwas, ever since the beverage was introduced from Yemen in the early Middle Ages, while there are also a few larger and more sophisticated coffee houses, with high ceilings and tall mirrors, such as Fishawi’s in Khan al-Khalili and El Horryia in Midan Falaki. All-night ’ahwas can be found around Midan Ramses and Sharia Qalaa and the Saiyida Zeinab end of Sharia Mohammed Farid and Sharia al-Nasireya. Women can increasingly be seen smoking sheeshas in ’ahwas, though generally in more sophisticated, slightly upmarket places rather than old-fashioned hole-in-the-wall ones. In particular, al-Borsa, the area around the stock exchange, is very trendy for ’ahwas, which spread out during the evening into all the surrounding backstreets.
The roof of the Nile Ritz-Carlton on the Corniche, when it opens, will have top views over Tahrir Square, but the front rooms at the Ismailia House hotel can equal them. The best budget hotel for views over the city in general is the Isis. The Citadel overlooks Islamic Cairo, where certain minarets give you a vista as far as the Pyramids on a clear day if they’re open (the Qalaoun complex, the Blue Mosque and the al-Muayyad minarets atop Bab Zwayla), but the finest view is from the high point in Al-Azhar Park. To look down on the mayhem that is Midan Ramses, the terrace café of the Everest Hotel is the place. The Cairo Tower on Gezira is also great for views, while the revolving restaurant at the Grand Nile Tower hotel on Roda Island offers what must rate as Cairo’s best panoramic view, encompassing the Pyramids, the Citadel, the Nile and most of downtown.
Although the bazaars deal in more exotic goods, Cairo’s markets provide an arresting spectacle, free of the touristy slickness that prevails around Khan al-Khalili. Street markets in central Cairo can be found at Bab al-Luq (on the south side of Midan Falaki; mostly food), Sharia Tawfiqia (off Midan Orabi; fruit, veg and car spares), at the eastern end of Sheikh Rihan (by Sharia Bur Said; food) and the northern end of Sharia Qalaa (phones, electronics, some food) – all do business through the night, accompanied by local coffee houses. With the kilo price displayed on most food stalls, you shouldn’t have to bargain unless they try to overcharge. Elsewhere haggling is de rigueur. Canary and budgerigar fanciers may also want to check out Cairo’s bird markets (10am–2.30pm), which are named after the days on which they’re held, including Souk al-Ahad (Sun; Giza Station) and Souk Itnayn w Khamis (Mon & Thurs), in the Abu Rish area of Saiyida Zeinab (see map). Souk al-Gom’a also has a bird market in its animal section.
Imam al-Shafi’i Market On and around Sharia Imam al-Shafi’i, Southern Cemetery, Islamic Cairo. Clothes are the mainstay of this street market, which straggles for 1km along the road leading from Al-Basatin to the Imam’s mausoleum in the Southern Cemetery area. Market day is Fri, and Fri mornings are by far the busiest time.
Paper Market Sharia al-Geish near Midan Ataba. This daily market sells not only all types of paper but also dyed leather, card and other stationery and art materials.
Souk al-Gom’a Southern Cemetery area, south of Islamic Cairo. Once a huge, sprawling flea-market, this market was largely curtailed by the Mubarak regime. What remains is the pet and livestock market by the Salah Salem overpass, south of the Citadel (see map), which to a certain extent merges into the Imam al-Shafi’i Market, while half a kilometre to the southeast, junk and furnituire stalls have started to return to the far end of the old Souk al-Gom’a area, although it remains a far smaller affair than before.
Wikalat al-Balah (Souk Bulaq) On and around Sharia Bulaq al-Gadida, Bulaq, behind the Corniche about 200m north of 26th July Street. For secondhand clothes as well as fabrics (from hand-loomed silk to cheap offcuts), tools and much else, you can’t beat Bulaq’s bustling daily street market.
There are currently no specific venues for gay men or lesbians in Cairo. In the past, venues such as Harry’s Pub at the Marriott Hotel were popular, but that all changed in 2001 when police raided the Queen Boat floating disco, which was popular with both gay and heterosexual couples. Homosexuality as such is not illegal in Egypt, but 52 gay men (“the Cairo 52”) were arrested, slung in a cell and charged with offences such as “debauchery” and “contempt of religion”, some receiving three-year prison sentences as a result. The religious lobby were delighted, but the gay scene made itself as invisible as possible, and any events that began to attract a gay crowd were quickly closed. After the revolution, things semed to relax for a bit, but the rise to prominence of the Muslim Brotherhood and the Salafists does not bode well. There’s been a lesbian scene in Cairo since at least the middle ages, but it’s always been more discreet than the gay male scene, and even harder for foreigners to make contacts in.