Any discussion of Fijian culture must take account of the split between ethnic Fijians and their Fiji-Indian adopted neighbours. Fiji-born Indians are forbidden by law to call themselves Fijians, with an almost apartheid-styled constitution being the country’s greatest barrier to building a unified nation. On the street level, the two races get on well enough, but with vastly different cultures and aspirations they tend not to mix socially. Considering them as a whole is thus difficult, although you’ll find Fiji’s peoples are generally extremely hospitable, generous and forgiving. They tend also to be deeply religious with church, temple and mosque well attended.
In rural areas, both amongst Fijians and Fiji-Indians, men and women have distinct roles and seldom mix in social settings. Macho behaviour is common and women travellers may find they experience unwanted attention. Amongst indigenous Fijians a strong heritage of tribal customs influences day-to-day life. For more information on these traditional customs see Visiting a Fijian village.
Smoking is socially acceptable in public places, although it has been officially banned on public transport. Some restaurants and a few bars have self-imposed smoke-free zones. Public toilets are few and far between.
As for dress codes, local women dress modestly. Shorts, sleeveless tops and short skirts are quite acceptable in town centres although they may draw undesired attention. Bikinis are fine at the pool or the beach, but not out and about. Bathing topless in public is strictly forbidden. Most restaurants and resorts are pretty casual but upscale eateries generally expect you to dress for dinner by donning trousers and a collared shirt for men; trousers, skirts or dresses for women. The most conservative environment for dress is in the villages where it’s expected for women to cover shoulders and for both men and women to wear sulus or at least shorts covering the knees – sunglasses and hats should also be removed.
Fijians tend to go to bed early and wake up early so don’t expect much to be going on after 9pm. When meeting, locals are eager to shake hands and ask you where you’re from, and usually exchange pleasantries when passing – a hearty “bula” being almost mandatory in rural areas, although in town centres this greeting is usually a ruse for selling you something. Fijians do not, as a rule, shout at each other or demand service. Visitors often become frustrated at the often glacial speed at which things move and the detached attitude when a problem arises – sega na leqa rules, a mix of mañana of Latin America and the “no worries mate” of Australia. There is little you can do about it and the more anxious or frustrated you get the less sympathy or assistance you’ll be shown. Slow down, relax and take it Fiji time.