For many centuries, SALT was the only settlement of any size in Transjordan. A regional capital under the Ottomans, the town – whose name derives from the ancient Greek saltos, meaning “thick forest” – came into its own in the late nineteenth century, when merchants from Nablus arrived to expand their trading base east of the river. Into what was then a peasant village of shacks boxed between precipitous hills, the merchants brought sophisticated architects and masons to work with the honey-coloured local limestone; buildings were put up in the ornate Nabulsi style to serve both as grand residences and as merchandise centres. With open trade to and from Palestine, Salt’s boom continued into the 1920s; the new Emirate of Transjordan was formally proclaimed in 1921 in the town’s main square, but by then the railway from Damascus had reached nearby Amman and Emir Abdullah chose the better-connected town to be his capital. As quickly as Salt had flourished, it went into decline: superseded by Amman, it was cut off by war in 1948 from its traditional trade outlet to the Mediterranean at Haifa, then again in 1967 from its Palestinian twin, Nablus.

As a consequence, Salt has seen none of the headlong modernization that has afflicted the capital: much of its Ottoman architecture has survived, as has a small town’s atmosphere, perfect for aimless exploration.

Standing under one of the huge eucalyptus trees that line the lower end of Maydan Street, you are surrounded by three towering hills: to your right are the bare rocky slopes of as-Salalem, to the left rises the tree-adorned peak of al-Jada’a, and straight ahead is al-Qal’a, named for the Mamluke fortress on its summit which was demolished in 1840 and finally swept away recently for a white-domed mosque.

Historic Old Salt Museum (Beit Abu Jaber)

Stroll first up Dayr Street and through the commerce-heavy, crowded central streets to the graceful arched facade of the Abu Jaber House, one of the city’s most beautiful houses, built over twenty years from 1886 using local sandstone, Belgian stained glass, Italian marble and hand-painted Jerusalem tiles. Newly restored, it is now the home of the Historic Old Salt Museum, with good displays on local history and trade, as well as fine views from the top-floor frescoed salon over the rooftops and a lovely café. Pick up a town map from the front desk showing a heritage trail around the city centre, linking more than a dozen architectural points of interest in a looping walk.

Jabal Al Qal’a

Across Al-Ain square, facing the Abu Jaber House, tiny Khadir Street has several flights of steps leading steeply up the hill. Partway up you’ll see the colonnaded honey-stone English Hospital, its gates still bearing an “EH” monogram; the building is now the Middle East’s first vocational training centre for people with disabilities. The view from Jabal Al Qal’a’s summit, bathed in sunshine, out over the town to the rolling Balqa hills beyond, is worth the hard climb.

Souk Hammam

From Al-Ain square, dive into narrow Hammam Street (the eponymous hammam was razed in the 1930s for lack of customers). This lane, known as Souk Hammam, is lined with buildings which date from Salt’s golden age, including a wonderful old mosque. The street hosts Jordan’s oldest – and, some say, best – souk, an ordinary little market of food and household goods that nonetheless is full of atmosphere, wreathed in the aroma of spices and lifted by the gorgeous honeystone Ottoman architecture.

Salt Archeological Museum

At the end of Souk Hammam, turn right to reach the arched and pillared facade (on the left) of the Salt Archeological Museum, housing a fascinating modern collection that includes a working model of a Mamluke sugar mill and an impression of a Neolithic dolmen landscape. The Ottoman-era building is equally interesting, known as Beit Touqan, once the stately residence of the Touqan family (King Hussein’s third wife, Queen Alia, was a Touqan). A few café tables in the enchanting upper courtyard entice you to linger.