The Garífuna people trace their history back to the island of St Vincent in the eastern Caribbean. In 1635 two Spanish ships carrying slaves from Nigeria were wrecked off the island, and in the following decades the survivors mixed with resident Amerindians, forming an Afro-Carib race. In their own language, they are Garinagu, or Garífuna “cassava-eating people”.

For years attempts by the British to gain control of St Vincent were repelled by the Garífuna, who were aided by the French. In 1783 the British imposed a treaty on the Garífuna, but they continued to defy British rule until 1796, when, after a year of bitter fighting, the French and the Garífuna surrendered.

The colonial authorities could not allow a free black society to survive, and a decision was made to deport the Garífuna, who were mercilessly hunted down. Hundreds died of starvation and disease. In March 1797, the remaining 2200 or so Garífuna were loaded aboard ships and sent to Roatán, one of the Honduran Bay Islands, where they were abandoned.

Settlement in Central America

Most Garífuna migrated from Roatán to the mainland where they worked as labourers, farmers and soldiers. In 1802, 150 Garífuna were brought as wood-cutters to southern Belize, from where they moved to Lívingston in 1806.

By the start of the twentieth century, the Garífuna were well established in the Lívingston area, with the women employed in bagging and stacking cohune nuts and the men working as fishermen. The Garífuna continued to travel widely in search of work, particularly in the merchant navy. Since the 1970s, many have left Central America for the US, where there’s now a fifty thousand strong population in New York. Today most Garífuna live in villages along the Caribbean coast of Honduras (where they number more than one hundred thousand) with smaller populations in Belize (around twenty thousand) and Nicaragua.

Language and religion

Most Garífuna speak Spanish (and some English) plus the unique Garífuna language that blends Arawak, Carib, French, English, Spanish and a few African words. Though virtually all worship at church, their Afro-Carib dugu (religion) – centred on ancestor worship – continues to be actively practiced. Dugu is immersed in ritual, and death is seen as the freeing of a spirit, a celebration that involves dancing, drinking and music.

Punta music

Garífuna music, or punta, is furiously rhythmic, characterized by mesmeric drum patterns and ritual chanting, and it’s very easy to hear its West African origins. The late Andy Palacio is the most renowned Garífuna musician; his 2007 album Wátina is considered his masterpiece. Critically acclaimed Umalali: The Garífuna Women’s Project is another superb compilation of Garífuna music.

Garífuna in Guatemala

For many Guatemalans, the Garífuna remain something of a national curiosity. They are not only subjected to discrimination, but also viewed with a strange awe that gives rise to a range of fanciful myths, including accusations of voodoo. Such prejudices, and the isolated nature of the community – numbering only around eight thousand in Guatemala – mean many young Garífuna are more drawn to African-American (hip-hop) and Jamaican (rastafari) influences than to Latin culture.

Book through Rough Guides’ trusted travel partners

Guatemala features

The latest articles, galleries, quizzes and videos.

Budget trips: 20 of the cheapest places to travel

Budget trips: 20 of the cheapest places to travel

That ever-growing travel wish list might be putting some pressure on your pocket – but there are plenty of destinations where you'll get more bang for your b…

11 Oct 2017 • Emma Gibbs camera_alt Gallery
Guatemala City: 7 reasons to stay a while

Guatemala City: 7 reasons to stay a while

Most visitors race through Guatemala City, keen to get to Antigua’s colourful colonial streets, visit the country’s Mayan sites or explore its spectacular v…

12 Jul 2017 • Freya Godfrey insert_drive_file Article
In pictures: traditional dress around the world

In pictures: traditional dress around the world

The Sari, India Ostensibly the simplest item of clothing possible – a single length of fabric, up to nine metres long – the sari is also one of the world…

02 Feb 2015 • Alice Park camera_alt Gallery
View more featureschevron_right

Privacy Preference Center

Necessary

Mandatory - can not be deselected. Necessary cookies help make a website usable by enabling basic functions like page navigation and access to secure areas of the website. The website cannot function properly without these cookies.

PHPSESSID,aelia_cs_selected_currency,cookie_notice_accepted,RS,bp-message,bp-message-type,id,UIDR,w3tc_logged_out,__cfduid
__cfduid

Statistics

Statistic cookies help website owners to understand how visitors interact with websites by collecting and reporting information anonymously.

__utma,__utmb,__utmc,__utmz,_ga,_gid,__atssc,__atuvc,__atuvs,di,dt,ssc,ssh,sshs,uid,uit,xt
__utma,__utmb,__utmc,__utmz,_ga,_gid
__atssc,__atuvc,__atuvs,di,dt,ssc,ssh,sshs,uid,uit,xtc

Marketing

Marketing cookies are used to track visitors across websites. The intention is to display ads that are relevant and engaging for the individual user and thereby more valuable for publishers and third party advertisers.

__gads,PISID, BEAT, CheckConnection TempCookie703, GALX, GAPS, GoogleAccountsLocale_session, HSID, LSID, LSOSID, NID, PREF, RMME, S, SAPISID, SID, SSID,__utmv, _twitter_sess, auth_token, auth_token_session, external_referer, guest_id, k, lang, original_referer, remember_checked, secure_session, twid, twll,c_user, datr, fr, highContrast, locale, lu, reg_ext_ref, reg_fb_gate, reg_fb_ref, s, wd, xs
__gads,PISID, BEAT, CheckConnection TempCookie703, GALX, GAPS, GoogleAccountsLocale_session, HSID, LSID, LSOSID, NID, PREF, RMME, S, SAPISID, SID, SSID
__utmv, _twitter_sess, auth_token, auth_token_session, external_referer, guest_id, k, lang, original_referer, remember_checked, secure_session, twid, twll
c_user, datr, fr, highContrast, locale, lu, reg_ext_ref, reg_fb_gate, reg_fb_ref, s, wd, xs