• Earplugs Help muffle the noise of videos on long-distance buses and trains, if you’re trying to sleep.
  • Film/memory cards For a digital camera, it doesn’t hurt to bring more memory card capacity than you think you’ll need. If using film, Kodak and Fuji film is available in most towns and major resorts, but may be old stock, so bring adequate supplies.
  • Mosquito net The best guarantee of a mozzie-free night’s sleep in the oases and the Nile Valley. Alternatively, buy a plug-in device (such as Ezalo) at any Egyptian pharmacy.
  • Sleeping bag A decent bag is required if you’re planning to sleep out in the desert in spring or autumn, or in any low-budget hotel over winter. In the summer, a sheet sleeping bag or silk sleeping bag liner is handy if you’re staying at cheap hotels, where just one (not necessarily clean) sheet is provided.
  • Suitable clothes Dress should be appropriate given Egypt’s conservative sensibilities (see Riding, trekking and jeep safaris). Northern Egypt can be cold and damp in the winter, while the desert gets freezing at night, even in spring and autumn, so a warm sweater is invaluable.
  • Torch/flashlight For exploring dark tombs, and for use during power cuts.

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