W. over Maes Howe prehistoric Neolithic chambered cairn and passage grave to Loch of Harray. Mainland island of Orkney, Scotland

Scotland //

Orkney and Shetland

Reaching up towards the Arctic Circle, and totally exposed to turbulent Atlantic weather systems, the Orkney and Shetland islands gather into two distinct and very different clusters. The Orkney archipelago lies just a short step north of the Scottish mainland. With the exception of Hoy, which is high and rugged, these islands are mostly low-lying, gently sloping and richly fertile. Sixty miles further north, Shetland is a complete contrast. Ice-sculpted sea inlets cut deep into the land that rises straight out of the water to rugged, heather-coated hills. With little fertile ground, Shetlanders have traditionally been crofters rather than farmers, often looking to the sea for an uncertain living in fishing and whaling or the naval and merchant services.

Orkney, in particular, boasts a well-preserved treasury of Stone Age settlements, such as Skara Brae, standing stones and chambered cairns. The Norse heritage is equally apparent in Shetland, where there are many well-preserved prehistoric sites, such as Mousa Broch and Jarlshof. It’s impossible to underestimate the influence of the weather up here. More often than not, it will be windy and rainy, though you can have all four seasons in one day. The wind-chill factor is not to be taken lightly, and there’s frequently a dampness or drizzle in the air, even when it’s not raining.