Portuguese food doesn’t have the same high profile as other European cuisines; nor, in truth, does it have the regional variation or contemporary invention found, say, in Spain. Menus tend to be markedly similar wherever you go, relying on a traditional repertoire of grilled fish and meat, hearty stews and casseroles, and the ubiquitous salt cod, nearly all served with the same trio of accompaniments – rice, potatoes and salad. There are, of course, blindingly good exceptions to the norm in every town – crispy suckling pig from the local grill house, sardines straight from the boat and slapped on the grill, a slow-cooked ragout of wild boar in a country tavern – and these are the kind of simple, earthy dishes that Portugal excels in. Most restaurants are also extremely good value, while Portuguese wine (and not just the famous port) enjoys a growing worldwide reputation – if you’re not yet familiar with them, you’ll soon come to relish a refreshing glass of vinho verde on a hot day, or a gutsy Alentejo red with your bife.
There’s far more choice, style and invention in Lisbon, Porto, the Algarve and in wine regions such as the Douro, where international dishes are widely available and some enterprising chefs are adding a contemporary twist to traditional Portuguese cuisine. But out in the regions, and particularly in rural areas, simple, traditional menus still dominate. It’s surprising, since the Portuguese originally introduced many spices and ingredients to a global market, but other than a Chinese restaurant, pizza place or Brazilian grill house most towns tend to feature resolutely local restaurants. Fast-food joints are widespread, though they are found more often in shopping malls than town centres.
Breakfast, snacks and sandwiches
At breakfast, any café, pastelaria (pastry shop) or confeitaria (confectioners) can provide a croissant or brioche, some toast (uma torrada; a doorstep with butter), a simple sandwich (a tosta mista is grilled ham and cheese) or some sort of cake or pastry. A padaria is a bakery, and any place advertising pão quente (hot bread) will also usually have a café attached.
Classic Portuguese snacks include folhadas (meat- or cheese-stuffed pasties), croquetes (deep-fried meat patties), pastéis or bolinhos de bacalhau (salt-cod fishcakes), iscas de bacalhau (battered cod fishcakes with egg), chamuças (samosas), bifanas (a grilled or fried pork sandwich), and prego no pão (steak sandwich).
If you see a sign saying petiscos, you’re about to encounter Portugal’s answer to Spain’s tapas. There’s rarely an extensive range, and apart from olives, tremoços (pickled lupin seeds), a small round of cheese or some small fried fish these dishes tend towards the challenging – stewed snails or octopus salad, for example, or the unspeakable, ubiquitous orelhas de porco (crunchy pig’s ears).
The quickest way to get trampled to death is to come between the Portuguese and their lunch.
- A Small Death in Lisbon, Robert Wilson
Portuguese restaurants (restaurantes) run the gamut, from rustic village eatery to designer hot spot, while meals are also served in a tasca (a tavern) and, less commonly these days, a casa de pasto (a cheap local dining room). A cervejaria is literally a “beer house”, usually more informal than a restaurant and typically specializing in steaks and seafood. A marisqueira is also a seafood place, while a churrasqueira is for chargrilled meat.
At lunch, most places offer a prato do dia (dish of the day) or two, which is often cheaper than choosing from the menu and can also include soup, a drink or dessert. This can cost as little as €6 or €7, while for €10 to €15 many places offer a more formal ementa turística – not a “tourist menu” as such, but a three-course set meal of the day. Prices, in any case, are rarely off-putting, and for €15–30 a head you could eat well in virtually any establishment in Portugal, provided you don’t eat lobster or quaff the vintage port.
The default size for servings is huge. Indeed, you can usually have a substantial meal by ordering a cheaper meia dose (half portion), or uma dose (a portion) between two. Meals are often listed like this on the menu and it’s normal practice; you don’t need to be a child. Lunch is usually served noon–3pm, dinner from 7.30pm onwards; don’t count on being able to eat much after 10pm outside cities and tourist resorts.
There are two more things to know about eating in Portuguese restaurants. One is the plate of appetizers that appears automatically as you take your table, often no more than bread and portions of butter and sardine spread, but sometimes including cheese, chouriço, prawns or other titbits. None of it is free and you will be charged for every bite – não quero isto (“I don’t want this”) should get the waiter to take it away (and make sure you check the bill afterwards). The other thing is the near-ubiquitous serenade of the traditional Portuguese television, even in upmarket or otherwise romantic or fancy restaurants. A request to turn it down or, heaven forbid, off is likely to be met with bemusement.
Most Portuguese are convinced that theirs is the finest cuisine in the world. You may beg to differ – though you’re in for a long argument if you voice a contrary opinion – but, at its best, Portuguese food marries locally sourced ingredients (especially fish, seafood, pork and game) with a straightforward preparation that lets the flavours shine through. There is regional variation, though not as much as you’d think – in fact, many ostensibly regional dishes turn up on menus across the country. In most day-to-day restaurants fancy sauces and fresh vegetables are rare, and the predominant dressing for grills and roasts is olive oil, garlic and lemon, though coriander, cumin and paprika are commonly used in cooking.
Fish and seafood
In any resort or river port you can get fabulous seafood, from prawns to barnacles, while fish on offer usually includes bream (dourada), sea bass (robalo), hake (pescada), carapau (mackerel), salmon (salmão, often farmed) and trout (truta). The most typical Portuguese fish dish is bacalhau (dried, salted cod), which is virtually the national dish with reputedly 365 different ways of preparing it – served with a boiled egg and black olives, made into a pie, chargrilled or cooked in a traditional copper cataplana, the list is endless. The best for first-timers to try are bacalhau á bras (fried with egg, onions and potatoes) and bacalhau com natas (baked in cream).
Grilled sardines provide one of the country’s most appetizing smells, and you should definitely try a fish or seafood cataplana, named after the wok-like lidded copper vessel in which it’s cooked. Also typical of the seaside is arroz de marisco, mixed seafood in a soupy rice; massa de peixe/marisco is a similar dish but with noodles – cataplanas, arroz and massa dishes are usually served for a minimum of two people. Other specialities include a caldeirada de peixe, basically a fish stew, and açorda (a bread stew traditionally made from stale bread mixed with herbs, garlic, eggs and whatever farmers found to hand), often served with prawns.
Meat and game
Grilled beef and pork are the mainstays of most menus – pork is especially loved in Portugal, whether it’s steaks, chops, ribs, belly or leg. The grill or barbecue (no churrasco) sees a lot of action, and grilled chicken (almost a second national dish) is usually enlivened by the addition of piri-piri (chilli) sauce. Also ubiquitous are porco à alentejana (pork cooked with clams), which originated, as its name suggests, in the Alentejo, and rojões (chunks of roast pork, served with black pudding) from the north (mainly Minho and Douro). Leitão (spit-roast suckling pig) is at the centre of many a communal feast, particularly in the Beiras, cabrito (roast kid) is ubiquitous in mountain areas, while another festive Beiras speciality is chanfana (goat stew). Duck is usually served shredded and mixed with rice (arroz de pato); rabbit is served in rural areas (a caçadora, hunter’s style, as a stew), and things like wild boar (javali), partridge (perdiz) or quail (cordoniz) are often on menus too.
You might need to steel yourself for a couple of special dishes. Porto’s tripas (tripe) dishes incorporate beans and spices but the heart of the dish is still recognizably chopped stomach-lining; while cozido à portuguesa is a boiled “meat” stew in which you shouldn’t be surprised to turn up lumps of fat, cartilage or even a pig’s ear. Other traditional dishes use pig’s or chicken’s blood as a base – the words to look for are sarrabulho and cabidela.
Vegetables and salad
Accompanying nearly every dish will be potatoes, either fried or roast in the case of most meat dishes or boiled if you’ve ordered fish. The distinction is less marked in tourist resorts on the Algarve and elsewhere, but trying to get chips to come with your grilled trout or salmon in a rural town simply invites incomprehension – fish comes with boiled potatoes and that’s that. Most dishes are also served with a helping of rice and salad. Other vegetables occasionally make an appearance, like carrots, cabbage or broccoli, usually boiled to within an inch of their lives – a more interesting choice is grelos (turnip tops), often turned into a purée, while winter and early spring is the time for chestnuts (castanhas), which appear in soups and stuffings. Salad is the more common accompaniment to every meal; a salada mista is a simple mixed salad of lettuce, tomatoes and onions.
Desserts, cakes, pastries and fruit
In most restaurants, the dessert menu rarely goes further than fruit salad (often tinned), commercial ice cream or things like chocolate mousse and rice pudding. Anything described as a doce de casa (house dessert) is invariably a heart-stopping wedge of sugar, cream and egg (our favourite Portuguese recipe begins “Take sixty egg yolks…”).
In cake shops, cafés and tea rooms you can seriously indulge yourself in pastries (pastéis), buns (bolinhos), rolls (tortas), tarts (tartes) and cakes (bolos). There are hundreds of local specialities, starting with the classic Lisbon pastéis de nata (custard tarts) and then continuing in glorious profusion by way of queijadas de Sintra (Sintra “cheesecakes”, not that they contain any cheese), palha de ovos (egg pastries) from Abrantes, bolo de anjo (“angel cake”), mil-folhas (millefeuille pastries), bolinhos made with beans (feijão), carrot (cenoura) or pumpkin (chila), bolos de arroz (rice-flour muffins) and suspiros (“sighs” – meringues). From Averiro, there are incredibly sweet egg-based ovos moles wrapped in wafers, while anything labelled doces conventuais (“convent desserts”) owes its origins to the gastronomic inspiration of nuns past.
Seasonal fruit ranges from spring cherries and strawberries to summer melons, peaches and apricots. The grapes arrive in late summer and autumn, as do most pears, apples, plums and figs, while winter is the time for citrus fruits, pomegranates, and immensely sweet dióspiros (persimmon or date-plums). Available year-round are bananas from Madeira, and sweet and aromatic pineapples from the Azores.
Portugal’s wine regions – notably Alentejo, Bairrada, Dão, Estremadura, Ribatejo and the Douro – have acquired a strong reputation in recent years. Most wines are made in small cooperatives with local grape varieties, many peculiar to Portugal.
Portuguese wine lists (ask for the lista de vinhos) don’t just distinguish between tinto (red), branco (white) and rosé, but between verde (“green”, meaning young, acidic and slightly sparkling) and maduro (“mature”, meaning the wines you’re probably accustomed to). You’ll find a decent selection from around the country in even the most basic of restaurants, and often in half-bottles, too.
Some of the best-known maduros are from the Douro region: the reds tend to be expensive, though a good, crisp, reasonably priced white is Planalto. Red wines from the Dão region (a roughly triangular area between Coimbra, Viseu and Guarda, around the River Dão) taste a little like burgundy, and they’re available throughout the country. Quinta de Cabriz from Carregal do Sal (near Viseu) is an excellent mid-range Dão red. The Alentejo is another area with a growing reputation – wines from Reguengos de Monsaraz have the strength and full body typical of that region, notably the Monte Velho reds and Esporão Reserva whites from the Herdade de Esporão vineyard. Among other smaller regions offering interesting wines are Colares near Sintra (rich reds), Bucelas in the Estremadura (crisp, dry whites) and Alenquer from Ribatejo (refreshing whites).
The light, slightly sparkling vinhos verdes – “green wines”, in age not colour – are produced in quantity in the Minho. They’re drunk early as most don’t improve with age, but are great with meals, especially shellfish. There are red and rosé vinhos verdes, though the whites are the most successful. Casal Garcia and Gato are the two labels you see everywhere; far better is Ponte de Lima and Ponte da Barca. For real quality, try the fuller-strength Alvarinho from Monção and Melgaço, along the River Minho.
Portuguese rosé wines are known abroad mainly through the spectacularly successful export of Mateus Rosé. This is too sweet and aerated for most tastes, but other rosés are definitely worth sampling.
Portugal also produces a range of sparkling wines, known as espumantes naturais. The best of these come from the Bairrada region, north of Coimbra, though Raposeira wines – a little further north from near Lamego – are more commonly available.
Fortified wine, spirits and beer
Port (vinho do Porto), the famous fortified wine or vinho generoso (“generous wine”), is produced from grapes grown in the vineyards of the Douro valley and mostly stored in huge wine lodges at Vila Nova de Gaia, facing Porto across the Rio Douro. You can visit these for tours and free tastings for all the details.
Madeira (vinho da Madeira), from the island of the same name, comes in four main varieties: Sercial (a light dry aperitif), Malvasia (very sweet, heavy dessert wine), Vermelho (a sweeter version of Sercial) and Boal or Malmsey (drier versions of Malvasia). Also worth trying are the sweet white moscatel dessert wines from Setúbal, which – like port and Madeira – also come as yearly vintages.
Domestic brandy and gin are fairly unsophisticated and frighteningly cheap. Be warned that the typical Portuguese measure of spirits involves the waiter or bartender pouring from the bottle until you beg them to stop. Order by name if you’d like an international brand that you’ve heard of.
Local firewaters – generically known as aguardente – include bagaço (made from distilled grape husks), aguardente de figo (from figs), ginginha (from cherries), brandymel (a honey brandy) and the very strange Licor Beirão (a kind of cognac with herbs). In the Algarve, the best-known firewaters are medronho, made from the strawberry tree and which tastes a bit like schnapps, and amarginha, made from almonds.
Portugal’s main beer (cerveja) brands, found nationwide, are Sagres and Super Bock, and you’ll also see Cristal and Cintra, not that there’s much to distinguish any of them. The standard beer in Portugal is a typical European-style lager (around five percent strength), but the main brands also offer a preta (black) beer – a kind of slightly fizzy lager-stout – as well as wheat, fruit-flavoured and non-alcoholic versions, none particularly successful. From the tap, order um imperial (or um fino in the north) if you want a regular glass, and uma caneca for half a litre. For bottled beer, ask for a mini (20cl) or a garrafa (33cl).
Coffee, tea and soft drinks
Coffee (café) comes black, small and espresso-strong (uma bica, or simply um café); black, small but weaker (um carioca); small and with milk (um garoto in Lisbon and the south, um pingo in the north); or large and with milk but weak (um galão), often served in a glass. For white coffee that tastes of coffee and not diluted warm milk, ask for um meia de leite.
Tea (chá) is usually served plain; com leite is with milk, and to be sure of getting tea with a slice of lemon (as opposed to a lemon-tea drink) ask for um chá preto com limão. Herbal teas are known as infusões, the most common being camomile (camomila), mint (menta) and lemon verbena (lúcia-lima).
Fresh orange juice (sumo de laranja) – rather surprisingly for an orange-producing country – can be awkward to find; adding the word natural or fresca should get you the real thing. If there is a juicer available, ask for it da maquina to get it freshly squeezed. Mineral water (água mineral) comes either still (sem gás) or carbonated (com gás).Read More
Food from afar
Food from afar
Portugal’s former status as an important trading nation has had a far greater influence on world cuisine than is often realized. The tempura method of deep-frying food was introduced to the Japanese by sixteenth-century Portuguese traders and missionaries, while the fiery curry-house mainstay vindaloo derives from a vinho (wine) and alho (garlic) sauce popular in Portuguese Goa. Indeed, the use of chillis in the East only began when the Portuguese started to import them from Mexico. Bacalhau (dried salt cod) – now a staple in diverse European countries and fashionable restaurants alike – started life as a way of preserving fish on board the Portuguese voyages of exploration; another, less exotic, Portuguese export is marmalade (although Portuguese marmelada is actually made from quince).
Despite this historic culinary influence, it’s a different matter when it comes to Portuguese cuisine itself, which rarely embraces anything more exotic than cumin, coriander and paprika. Pizza, pasta and unauthentic Chinese and Indian food are the best that most towns can muster in the way of foreign tastes, though some restaurants do specialize in dishes from Portugal’s former colonies. Keep an eye out for mufete (beans with palm oil and fish) and chicken piri piri (chicken with chilli sauce), which originated in Angola and Mozambique, caril de camarão (shrimp curry) and chamuças (samosas) from Asia, and Brazilian meals such as feijoada (pork and bean stew), picanha (sliced rump steak) and rodizio (barbecue meat buffet).
Portuguese cuisine is tough on strict vegetarians and you’ll be eating a lot of omelettes, chips, salads and pizzas. Caldo verde – a cabbage-and-potato broth – might come with a bit of sausage in it, but nearly everywhere does a basic vegetable soup. Portuguese fruit is a particular joy, especially in the Algarve, Estremadura and Beira Baixa, and any market should turn up some excellent local produce. You may even find officially certified biológico – organic – produce, though it has yet to make much of an impact on mainstream food-buying habits.
In Lisbon, Porto and some parts of the Algarve, there are vegetarian restaurants, even macrobiotic ones, together with Chinese, Italian and Indian establishments where you should be able to eat well. Also, most towns have health-food shops (or supermarkets with health-food sections) where you can find cereal bars, gluten-free biscuits, dried fruit and the like.
Smoked meats and sausages
Smoked meats and sausages
With pork taking pride of place in Portuguese cooking, much of the slaughtered animal is preserved as smoked legs of ham and spiced sausages – enchidos (“stuffed things”) or fumeiros (“smoked things”).
Alheiras and farinheiras With roots in the Inquisition, when Jews copied the Catholic passion for sausages while avoiding pork. Alheiras are based on bread and chicken, the best from Mirandela in Trás-os-Montes, and are served grilled or steamed. The superior alheiras de caça contain game fowl such as partridge. Farinheiras from Beira Baixa and Alentejo are more floury, and seasoned with paprika, wine or oranges.
Buchos and maranhos Bucho (“stomach”), from Trás-os-Montes, is Portugal’s haggis, usually stuffed with pork and rice. Maranhos, from Beira Baixa, are similar but contain goat’s meat or mutton, tempered with garlic, wine, onion, parsley and mint.
Chouriço or linguiça Eaten raw or grilled over flaming alcohol (chouriço assado). The best are from Alentejo, Guarda, Lamego and Trás-os-Montes. The stuffing varies from coarsely chopped pieces of pig to finer blends flavoured with herbs and wine (chouriço de vinho).
Moiras A cross between morcelas and chouriço, famously from Lamego, made with wine and onion, and having a strong, bitter taste.
Morcelas or sangueiras Similar to black pudding (ie, made with blood and fat) and with an intense aroma of cumin and cloves. The best and least fatty are from Guarda.
Paio (or palaios, paínhos or paiolas) Paio, especially from Beira Baixa, contains a more or less solid chunk of prime smoked and seasoned ham.
Presunto Portugal’s Parma ham: smoked leg of pork preserved in sea salt and cured for months or years.
Salpicão Contains prime meat rather than noses and trotters, and can be sliced like cured bacon. There are many varieties, variously seasoned, and mainly from Beiras, Alentejo and Rio Douro.
There’s a huge range of regional Portuguese cheese, a sizeable quantity of which is still handmade (the label D.O.P. guarantees that it was made in its traditional area). A queijo de cabra or cabreiro is goats’ cheese, sheep is ovelha, cow is vaca, cured is curado, and buttery is amanteigado.
Queijo Alentejano Small hard rounds of matured cheese (typically Alentejan) made from goat or sheep’s milk, often referred to as Queijo Seco (dry cheese). They’re curdled with thistle flowers (cardo or coalha-leite) instead of rennet. Look for Queijo de Nisa from northern Alentejo (similar to Parmesan) and Queijo de Serpa from the south – strong, tart and available young (soft) or mature (hard).
Queijo da Serra (or Queijo Serrano) Unctuous, aromatic cheese from the Serra da Estrela. It’s not matured for long, and consequently has an almost liquid texture. The traditional method is to cut out a hole on top and scoop up the contents by spoon.
Azeitão A sheep’s milk cheese from near Lisbon, which crumbles slightly when you cut it and has a pleasantly astringent taste.
Queijo de Ovelha Churra A hard cheese made with milk from the rugged sheep of southern Trás-os-Montes, especially around Vila Flôr. Stronger variants are sold in Alto Douro and Trás-os-Montes, cured with salt, olive oil and paprika.
Queijo Queimoso (or Picante) Rich and piquant (queimoso means “burning”) mix of goat/sheep’s milk, similar to Roquefort. The best is from the Serra da Gardunha in Beira Baixa. Less pungent is the paprika-covered pimentão, made from cows’ milk.
Rabaçal Slightly tart cheese, a splendidly refined blend of sheep’s milk and cows’ milk, at its best from Ansião, near Coimbra.
Queijo da Ilha de São Jorge The best of the Azores’ acclaimed cows’ milk cheeses.
Queijo fresco (or requeijão) Queijo fresco is strained, lightly pressed curds of cows’ milk one or two days old, whilst requeijão is unpressed curds of sheep’s milk, vaguely similar to cottage cheese.
Flamengo Flamengo (“Flemish”) is a direct copy of Dutch Edam, industrially produced in rectangular blocks and sold sliced as queijo em barra or queijo em fatias.