The cultural heart of the city, graceful Vedado draws the crowds with its palatial hotels, contemporary art galleries, exciting (and sometimes incomprehensible) theatre productions and live music concerts, not to mention its glut of restaurants, bars and nightspots. Loosely defined as the area running west of Calzada de Infanta up to the Río Almendares, Vedado is less ramshackle than other parts of the city. Tall 1950s buildings and battered hot rods parked outside glass-fronted stores lend the downtown area a strongly North American air, contrasted with the classical ambience of nineteenth-century mansions; the general impression is of an incompletely sealed time capsule, where the decades and centuries all run together.
Vedado is fairly easy to negotiate, laid out on a grid system divided by four main thoroughfares: the broad and handsome boulevards Avenida de los Presidentes (also called Calle G) and Paseo, running north to south, and the more prosaic Linea and Calle 23 running east to west. The most prominent sector is modern La Rampa – the name given to a busy section of Calle 23 immediately west from the Malecón, as well as the streets just to the north and south. Presenting a rather bland uniformity that’s absent from the rest of Vedado, it’s a relatively small space, trailing along the eastern part of the Malecón and spanning just a couple of streets inland. A little to the south of La Rampa proper is the elegant Universidad de La Habana, attended by orderly students who personify the virtues of post-Revolution education.
Southwest of the university is the Plaza de la Revolución, with its immense monuments to Cuban heroes José Martí, Ernesto “Che” Guevara and, more recently added, Camilo Cienfuegos. Although generally considered part of Vedado, Plaza de la Revolución (also known just as Plaza) is actually the municipality to which the Vedado neighbourhood belongs, and with its huge utilitarian buildings has a flavour quite distinct from the other parts of Vedado. The uncompromisingly urban landscape of the plaza itself – a huge sweep of concrete – is a complete contrast to the area’s other key attraction, the atmospheric Necrópolis de Cólon, a truly massive cemetery.
In the part of Vedado north of Calle 23 up to the Malecón, west to the Río Almendares and east roughly as far as the Avenida de los Presidentes, the backstreets are narrow and avenues are overhung with leaves. Many of the magnificent late- and post-colonial buildings here – built in a mad medley of Rococo, Baroque and Neoclassical styles – have been converted into state offices and museums. Particularly noteworthy is the Museo de Artes Decorativas, an exhausting collection of fine furniture and objets d’art. Further west from the Malecón, dotted around Linea, Paseo and the Avenida de los Presidentes, are several excellent galleries and cultural centres. Not to be missed is the Casa de las Américas, a slim and stylish Art Deco building that was set up to celebrate Pan-Americanism.Read More
- Plaza de la Revolución
You can enter the Taganana cave through the Hotel Nacional grounds, where a small display charts the history of the cave and its rocky outcrop. It was named after a character created by novelist Cirilo Villaverde, whose story placed the fictional Indian Taganana there after seeking refuge from pursuing conquistadors. The natural cave and its vantage point overlooking the seafront were capitalized upon by the Spanish, who built the Batería de Santa Clara battery on it in 1797 and then in 1895 positioned two cannon here for use during the Wars of Independence. Following the war, the battery was expanded and converted into military barracks, which remained until the 1930s when the area was earmarked for a showcase hotel. The cave’s final moment of glory came during the Missile Crisis in 1962, when Che Guevara and Castro decamped here with suitable military artillery in preparation for an air defence of the capital.
Necrópolis de Colón
Necrópolis de Colón
Five blocks northwest from Plaza de la Revolución along tree-lined Paseo, there’s a worthwhile detour to the left at the Zapata junction: the Necrópolis de Colón, one of the largest cemeteries in the Americas. With moribund foresight the necropolis was designed in 1868 to have space for well over a hundred years’ worth of corpses, and its neatly numbered “streets”, lined with grandiose tombstones and mausoleums and shaded by large trees, stretch out over five square kilometres. A tranquil refuge from the noise of the city, it is a fascinating place to visit – you can spend hours here seeking out the graves of the famous, including the parents of José Martí (he is buried in Santiago), celebrated novelist Alejo Carpentier, Alberto “Korda” Gutierrez, and a host of revolutionary martyrs.
Also known as Plaza de la Dignidad, the Plaza Anti-Imperialista open-air auditorium was hurriedly constructed in 2000 as a forum for Fidel Castro’s protestations and invective during the furore surrounding the flight to the US (and eventual return) of schoolboy Elián Gonzáles. In January 2006, North American diplomats began displaying messages about human rights via an electronic ticker-tape on the side of the building facing the plaza; the US termed this as an attempt to break Cuba’s “information blockade”; Fidel Castro denounced it as a “gross provocation”. Later that year the Cuban authorities retorted by erecting 138 black flags facing the ticker tape, each decorated with a white star and said to symbolize Cubans who have died as a result of violent acts against the country by unsympathetic regimes since the Revolution began in 1959. US diplomats subsequently announced in 2009 they would desist from displaying inflammatory messages. Today the plaza is as often used for free music concerts as speeches.