Reflecting Sri Lanka’s position close to the equator, average temperatures remain fairly constant year round. The main factors shaping local weather are altitude and the two monsoons. There is more on the island’s climate in the Introduction (see Sri Lankan Buddhism).
Entering Sri Lanka you are allowed to bring in 1.5 litres of spirits and two bottles of wine. You’re not allowed to bring cartons of duty-free cigarettes into Sri Lanka, although it’s unlikely you’ll be stopped at customs and searched. If you are caught “smuggling”, your cartons will be confiscated and you’ll be fined Rs.6000. There are no duty-free cigarettes on sale at the airport on arrival, either.
Leaving Sri Lanka you are permitted to export up to 10kg of tea duty-free. In theory, you’re not allowed to take out more than Rs.250 in cash, though this is rarely checked. If you want to export antiques – defined as anything more than fifty years old – you will need authorization from the Archeological Department (Sir Marcus Fernando Mw, Colombo 7 t 011 269 5255, w archaeology.gov.lk) depending on exactly what it is you want to export. The export of any coral, shells or other protected marine products is prohibited; taking out flora, fauna or animal parts is also prohibited.
Sri Lanka’s electricity runs at 230–240V, 50 cycles A/C. Round, three-pin sockets are the norm, though you’ll also sometimes find square three-pin sockets, especially in more upmarket hotels; adaptors are cheap and widely available. Power cuts, once frequent, are now much less common, while most top-end places have their own generators.
For police assistance in an emergency, call t 119 in Colombo or t 118 anywhere else on the island. The emergency number for Emergency Medical Services is t 110.
Citizens of all countries apart from the Maldives and Singapore require a visa, or “ETA” (Electronic Travel Authorization) to visit Sri Lanka. Visas can be obtained online in advance at w eta.gov.lk or on arrival at the airport. The visa (prices are charged in $) is valid for thirty days and for two entries and currently costs $20 if bought online ($10 for citizens of SAARC countries) or $25 if bought on arrival; you can also buy a thirty-day business visa online (also $20). Your passport must be valid for six months after the date of your arrival.
This thirty-day visa can be extended to three months at the Department of Immigration (Mon–Fri 8.30am–2pm; t 011 532 9300, w immigration.gov.lk) at 41 Ananda Rajakaruna Mw, Punchi Borella, Colombo 10, on the east side of the city centre beyond Colombo General Hospital. You can extend your visa as soon as you get to Sri Lanka; the month included in your original visa is included in the three months. You’ll need to bring one passport photo. Fees for three-month visa extensions (again, these are quoted in $) can be checked at w immigration.gov.lk; they’re currently $54 for UK nationals, $16 for citizens of the Republic of Ireland, $30 for Australians, $34.50 for New Zealanders, $50 for Canadians, and $100 for US citizens. Conditions for extensions are an onward ticket and proof of sufficient funds, calculated at $15 a day, although a credit card will probably suffice.
Foreign embassies and consulates are virtually all based in Colombo (see Ayurveda and spas).
Gay and lesbian travellers
There is little understanding of gay issues in Sri Lanka – gays and lesbians are generally stigmatized and homosexuality is technically illegal (although no one has been arrested since 1950), so discretion is advised, and the whole scene remains rather secretive. w equal-ground.org is a good first port of call for information about the local scene, while w utopia-asia.com/tipssri.htm has further links, as well as listings of gay-friendly accommodation and general travel information.
It’s essential to take out insurance before travelling to cover against theft, loss and illness or injury. A typical travel insurance policy usually provides cover for loss of baggage, tickets and – up to a certain limit – cash or cheques, as well as cancellation or early curtailment of your journey. Most of them exclude so-called dangerous sports unless an extra premium is paid: in Sri Lanka this can mean scuba diving, whitewater rafting, windsurfing and trekking. Many policies can be chopped and changed to exclude coverage you don’t need – for example, sickness and accident benefits can often be excluded or included at will. When securing baggage cover, make sure that the per-article limit – typically under £500 – will cover your most valuable possession. If you need to make a claim, you should keep receipts for medicines and medical treatment, and in the event you have anything stolen, you must obtain an official statement from the police.
Most towns in Sri Lanka now have at least one or two places offering internet access, either in proper cybercafés, in communications bureaux or in guesthouses – details are given throughout the Guide. Costs vary widely, from as little as Rs.1 per minute in Colombo and Kandy up to Rs.6 per minute or more in less well-connected areas. An increasing number of places also have wi-fi. If you have a laptop and need to be constantly connected, all Sri Lanka’s telecom providers (see Opening hours) offer various mobile broadband packages.
Most guesthouses and hotels offer a laundry service. Washing usually takes 24 hours and usually costs around Rs.50–75 for a shirt or blouse and around Rs.100 for a pair of trousers or a light dress. There are no public coin-operated launderettes anywhere on the island.
Postal services from Sri Lanka (w slpost.gov.lk) are fairly reliable, at least if you stick to airmail, which takes three to four days to reach the UK and US. Surface mail is about half to one-third the cost of airmail but is horribly slow and offers lots of potential for things to get lost or damaged in transit. A postcard to the UK, Australasia and North America costs Rs.25. An airmail parcel to the UK costs around $25 for up to 0.5kg, plus around $12.50 for each additional 0.5kg up to a maximum weight of 20kg (rates to North America are similar; to Australia, slightly cheaper). Parcels heavier than 20kg have to be sent by EMS Speed Post. If you want to send a parcel home from Sri Lanka, you must take the contents unwrapped to the post office so that they can be inspected before wrapping (all larger post offices have counters selling glue, string and wrapping paper).
Another option is EMS Speed Post, slightly faster (and more expensive) than airmail – a 0.5kg package to the UK costs around $27 (slightly less to North America and Australia). Alternatively, a number of reputable international couriers have offices in Colombo – try Fedex at 300 Galle Rd, Kollupitiya (t 011 452 2222).
There are several good maps of Sri Lanka. The best and most detailed is the Rough Guide Sri Lanka Map (1:500,000); it’s also printed on indestructible waterproof paper so it won’t disintegrate in the tropics and can even be used as an emergency monsoon shelter, at a pinch. Otherwise, the entire island is covered by a series of 92 1:50,000 maps – detailed, but somewhat dated. These are only available from the Survey Dept on Kirulla Rd, Havelock Town, Colombo 5 (Mon–Fri 10am–3.30pm); you’ll need to show your passport to get in. In Colombo, Arjuna’s A–Z Street Guide is generally useful, if not always totally accurate.
The Sri Lankan currency is the rupee (abbreviated variously as R., R/ or R/-, and, as in this book, as Rs.). Coins come in denominations of Rs.1, 2, 5 and 10. Notes come in denominations of Rs.10, 20, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000 and 5000. Try to avoid accepting particularly dirty, torn or disreputable-looking notes, and break big notes and stock up on change whenever you can – don’t expect to be able to pay for a Rs.50 cup of tea with a Rs.5000 note.
At the time of writing, the exchange rate was around Rs.130 to $1, Rs.175 to €1, and Rs.210 to £1; you can check current exchange rates at w xe.com. The Sri Lankan rupee continues to devalue steadily against hard currencies. To guard against the effects of this devaluation, top-end hotels always give their prices either in US dollars or (occasionally) in euros, though you’ll be expected to pay in rupees, with the bill converted at the current bank exchange rate. Many other tourist services are also often priced in dollars – anything from entrance tickets at archeological sites to tours, balloon trips or diving courses – though, again, payment will be expected in rupees.
Sri Lanka is well supplied with banks. The six main chains (most larger towns will have a branch of at least three or four of these) are the Bank of Ceylon, Hatton National Bank, Sampath Bank, Commercial Bank, People’s Bank and Seylan Bank. All are open Monday to Friday from 8 or 9am in the morning until 2 or 3pm in the afternoon, and all shut at weekends. Exchange rates for foreign currency, whether travellers’ cheques, cash or making withdrawals by credit or debit card, are fairly uniform; you may get fractionally better rates if you shop around, but you won’t make any dramatic savings. If you need to change money outside banking hours, head to the nearest top-end hotel – most change cash or travellers’ cheques, though at rates that are up to ten percent poorer than bank rates. Failing this, you could try at local guesthouses or shops – the more tourist-oriented the place you’re in, the better your chances, though you’ll probably have to accept poor rates. All towns of any consequence now have at least one bank ATM that accepts foreign debit and credit cards; details are given throughout the Guide. ATMs at the Commercial Bank (which accept both Visa and MasterCard) are usually the most reliable, followed by those at the Hatton National Bank.
Despite the usefulness of plastic, you might still feel it’s worth taking at least a few travellers’ cheques. These can be changed rapidly and painlessly at any bank in Sri Lanka. Sterling-, euro- and dollar-denominated travellers’ cheques are all universally accepted, but take a standard brand (Amex, Thomas Cook or Visa) to avoid problems.
You might also want to carry some cash with you for emergencies. US dollars, euros, pounds sterling and Australian dollars are all widely recognized and easily changed. New Zealand or Canadian dollars might occasionally cause problems, but are generally accepted in most banks.
Most businesses, including banks and government offices, work a standard five-day working week from Monday to Friday 9/9.30am to 5/5.30pm. Major post offices generally operate longer hours (typically 7am–9pm), and stay open on Saturdays as well. Many museums shut on Fridays, while Hindu temples stay shut until around 4pm to 5pm, when they open for the evening puja. Buddhist temples, by contrast, generally stay open from dawn until dusk, or later.
Phoning home from Sri Lanka is straightforward, and relatively inexpensive, although if you’re planning a long trip and are likely to be making a lot of calls, using your own mobile is probably the most cost-effective option. Ask your service provider whether your handset will work abroad and what the call costs are. Most UK, Australian and New Zealand mobiles use GSM, which works well in Sri Lanka, but US mobiles (apart from tri-band phones) won’t work. While some foreign mobile providers have reciprocal arrangements with local operators and offer surprisingly cheap rates using your existing SIM card – you might like to check tariffs before you travel – it’s generally cheaper to replace the SIM card in your phone with a new SIM from a Sri Lankan company (assuming your phone isn’t locked). This will give you a Sri Lankan phone number and you will be charged domestic rates – as low as Rs.15 per minute for international calls, and around Rs.5 for local calls. SIM cards can be picked up for around $10 or less from the myriad phone shops which have sprung up to cater to the Sri Lankan mobile boom; these places also sell chargers and adaptors for Sri Lankan sockets, and cards with which you can top up your airtime (or look for any shop displaying the relevant sticker). The main operators are Dialog (w dialog.lk), Mobitel (w mobitel.lk), Etisalat (w etisalat.lk), Airtel (w airtel.lk) and Hutch (w hutch.lk). You can get a mobile signal pretty much everywhere on the island apart from a few remote rural locations, most notably Kudawa, in Sinharaja.
Without a mobile, the easiest way to make a call is to go to one of the island’s innumerable communications bureaux, little offices offering phone, fax and photocopying services, and sometimes email as well (look out for signs advertising IDD calls); there will usually be at least a couple on the main street of even the smallest town. You make your call, either from a private cubicle or from a phone at the counter, and then pay the bill at the end. Some places have phones with built-in LCD timers so you can see exactly how long you’ve been on the line for; in other places they just use a stop-watch. Calls to the UK, Australasia and North America cost from around Rs.75 per minute; calls within Sri Lanka cost around Rs.5 per minute.
There are very few public payphones in Sri Lanka. If you can’t get to a communications bureau, you could possibly phone from your hotel room, though this is expensive.
To call home from Sri Lanka, dial the international access code (t 00), then the country code (UK t 44; US & Canada t 1; Ireland t 353; Australia t 61; New Zealand t 64; South Africa t 27), then the area code and subscriber number. Note that the initial zero is omitted from the area code when dialling the UK, Ireland, Australia and New Zealand from abroad.
To call Sri Lanka from abroad, dial your international access code then the country code for Sri Lanka (t 94), then the area code, minus the initial zero, then the subscriber number.
Sri Lankans love having their photo taken – though it’s obviously polite to ask and, if you’re using a digital camera, to show them the results afterwards. A few of the island’s more photogenic inhabitants might expect to be paid to be photographed, particularly stilt fishermen, when you can find them, and (occasionally) tea pickers in the highlands. You’re not allowed to pose for photographs with Buddha images (standing with your back to the image), and photography is also generally not permitted inside Hindu temples. In addition, note that flash photography can damage old murals; if you’re asked not to take flash photos, don’t. And of course photographing soldiers or military installations is asking for trouble.
There are camera shops in most main towns, plus a few places in Kandy and Colombo where you can burn digital images to CD and which also sell memory cards (at Western prices). If you’re using slide or black-and-white film it’s best to bring it from home. If you buy film in Sri Lanka, check the expiry date on the box and don’t buy film that has been left lying around in the sun. Processing is widely available, though won’t always match the standards you’re used to back home.
Sri Lanka is five hours and thirty minutes ahead of GMT; it doesn’t follow Daylight Savings Time.
Considering the importance of tourism to the national economy, there are surprisingly few sources of official tourist information either in Sri Lanka itself or abroad – only the UK currently boasts a properly equipped overseas tourist office (3rd floor, 1 Devonshire Square, London EC2M 4WD; t 0845 880 6333). For detailed information about specific areas, the best sources are the independent tour operators and staff at hotels and guesthouses.
In addition to a number of magazines that feature listings and articles of local interest (see Festivals and public holidays), the free monthly Travel Lanka, available from the tourist office in Colombo, contains listings of accommodation, shops, services and transport in the capital and across the island.
Good online sources of information include the Sri Lanka Tourist Board’s site (w srilanka.travel). You might also like to have a browse through Ari Withanage’s Sri Lanka pages at w members.tripod.com/~withanage and the eclectic Lanka Library (w lankalibrary.com), which has loads of background on sites, culture, history and cuisine. The websites dedicated to current affairs in Sri Lanka are also worth a look (see Newspapers and magazines).
Travellers with disabilities
Awareness of the needs of disabled people remains extremely low in Sri Lanka, and there’s virtually no provision for disabled travellers. Few hotels, restaurants or tourist sites are wheelchair-accessible, although there are plenty of one-storey guesthouses that might be usable – though more by accident than design. Public transport is enough of a challenge for able-bodied passengers, and completely useless for wheelchair users, so you’ll need your own vehicle and a driver who is sympathetic to your needs – and even then the lack of specially adapted vehicles can make getting in and out difficult.
Pavements – where they exist – are generally uneven, full of potholes and protected by high kerbs, while the anarchic traffic presents obvious dangers to those with only limited mobility.
Volunteering in Sri Lanka
There are all sorts of voluntary work projects in Sri Lanka – anything from teaching football to mucking out elephants – and a quick trawl on the internet will turn up dozens of possibilities. Note, however, that although volunteering is richly rewarding, it demands a real commitment of time and energy, and most placements cost at least as much as you’d expect to pay on an equivalent-length backpacking holiday on the island, and sometimes rather more. The following organizations give a good idea of what’s available.
Sri Lanka is one of the world’s leading honeymoon destinations, and many couples go a step further and actually get married on the island – beach weddings are particularly popular. Arranging the ceremony independently and dealing with the attendant paperwork and bureaucracy can be difficult, however, and it’s much easier to leave the details to a specialist operator. Most large hotels and a number of tour operators can arrange the whole wedding for you, including (if you fancy) extras like Kandyan drummers and dancers, plus optional elephants and a chorus of local girls.