It has beautiful scenery, a laidback atmosphere, friendly people and several notable sights, yet SHIKOKU (四国), Japan’s fourth main island, is usually at the bottom of most visitors’ itineraries – if it appears at all. This is a shame, since this tranquil island, nestling in the crook between Honshū and Kyūshū, offers elements of traditional Japan that are often hard to find elsewhere. An ancient Buddhist pilgrimage, original castles and distinctive arts and crafts are some of Shikoku’s attractions – but equally appealing are the island’s rural pace of life and little-visited villages and smaller surrounding islands. Set aside a week or so to get around all Shikoku’s four prefectures. If you only have a day or two, though, head straight for Matsuyama’s splendid castle and the hot springs at nearby Dōgo; or pay a visit to the landscape gardens of Ritsurin-kōen in Takamatsu, before hopping on a ferry over to the idyllic, contemporary art-filled island of Naoshima.
According to legend, Shikoku was the second island (after Awaji-shima) born to Izanagi and Izanami, the gods who are considered to be Japan’s parents. Its ancient name was Iyo-no-futana and it was divided into four main prefectures: Awa (now Tokushima-ken), Iyo (Ehime-ken), Sanuki (Kagawa-ken) and Tosa (Kōchi-ken). These epithets are still used today when referring to the different prefectures’ cuisines and traditional arts. Apart from being the scene of a decisive battle between the Taira and Minamoto clans in the twelfth century (see The Kamakura era), Shikoku has had a relatively peaceful history, due in part to its isolation from the rest of Japan. The physical separation ended with the opening of the Seto Ōhashi in 1989, a series of six bridges that leapfrog the islands of the Inland Sea, carrying both trains and cars. It has since been joined by the Akashi Kaikyō Ōhashi suspension bridge, connecting Shikoku to Honshū via Awaji-shima, the island to the west of Tokushima, and the Nishi Seto Expressway, running along ten bridges spanning nine islands on Shikoku’s northern coast.
Most of Shikoku’s population of just over four million lives in one of the island’s four prefectural capitals: Takamatsu, Tokushima, Kōchi and Matsuyama. The island is split by a vast mountain range that runs from Tsurugi-san in the east to Ishizuchi-san, Shikoku’s tallest peak, in the west. The northern coast, facing the Inland Sea, is heavily developed, in contrast to the predominantly rural south, where the unimpeded kuroshio (black current) of the Pacific Ocean has carved a rugged coastline of sheer cliffs and outsized boulders. The climate throughout the island is generally mild, although the coasts can be lashed by typhoons and the mountains see snow in the winter.
Apart from the highlights listed, other places to consider building into a trip to this part of Japan include the lovely Inland Sea island of Shōdo-shima, the whirlpools at Naruto, and Hiwasa, where turtles come to lay their eggs each summer. With more time you could hit Shikoku’s southern coast for the dramatically rocky capes at Ashizuri and Muroto, and explore the Shimantogawa, one of Japan’s most beautiful rivers.
In the prefectural capitals you’ll find a wide range of hotels, restaurants and bars, as well as international centres and tourist information offices, while the island’s famous 88-temple pilgrimage means that even in the countryside you’re unlikely to be stuck for accommodation.Read More
The Shikoku pilgrimage
The Shikoku pilgrimage
Wherever you are in Shikoku, you’ll seldom be far from Japan’s longest and most famous pilgrimage, established by disciples of the Buddhist saint Kōbō Daishi, founder of Shingon Buddhism ( for more on Daishi). It usually takes over two months to walk the 1400km between the 88 temples on the prescribed route, and plenty of pilgrims, known as henro-san, still complete the journey this way, though far more follow the route by car, train or on bus tours. The number of temples represents the 88 evils that, according to Shingon Buddhism, bedevil human life.
Henro-san are easy to spot, since they usually dress in traditional short white cotton coats, coloured shoulder bands and broad-rimmed straw hats, and generally clutch rosaries, brass bells and long wooden staffs – for support on the steep ascents to many of the temples. The characters on their robes and staffs translate as “Daishi and I go together”. Most pilgrims are past retirement age, as few younger Japanese have the inclination or the vacation time needed for such a pilgrimage.
The present-day headquarters of the Shingon sect is Kōya-san, in Wakayama-ken, and this is the traditional start of the pilgrimage. The first temple visited on Shikoku is Ryōzen-ji, near Naruto in Tokushima-ken. Pilgrims then follow a circular route that winds its way clockwise around the island, stopping at all the temples en route to the 88th, Ōkubo-ji, in Kagawa-ken.
Several books in English describe the 88-temple hike, including Oliver Statler’s classic Japanese Pilgrimage. For more up-to-date details, check out wwww.shikokuhenrotrail.com, created by the American henro David Turkington.
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- John Mung
- Japanese-style bullfighting