MEGHALAYA, one of India’s smallest states, occupies the plateau and rolling hills between Assam and Bangladesh. Its people are predominantly Christian, belonging to three main ethnic groups, the Khasis, Jaintias and Garos. The state has a high literacy rate and teaching is in English. Much of Meghalaya (“the land of the rain-clouds”) is covered with lush forests, rich in orchids. These “blue hills” bear the brunt of the Bay of Bengal’s monsoon-laden winds and are among the wettest places on earth. Stupendous waterfalls can be seen near the capital, Shillong, but the most dramatic plummet from the plateau to the south, around Cherrapunjee.
Meghalaya’s hills rise to almost 2000m, making for a pleasantly cool year-round climate. The Jaintia Hills offer good walking and caving, and the state is laced with historical sights such as Nartiang near Jowai, which has an impressive collection of monoliths.
On January 21, 1972, after an eighteen-year struggle for autonomy from Assam, Meghalaya became a full-fledged state. However, the HNLC, a rebel underground movement, still calls bandhs demanding independence from the rest of India.Read More
With its rolling hills of pine conifers and pineapple shrubs, SHILLONG was known to the British as “the Scotland of the East” – an impression first brought to mind by Barapani (or Umiam), the stunning loch-like reservoir on its fringes, and the sight of the local Khasi women wearing gingham and tartan shawls. At an altitude of around 1500m, Shillong became a popular hill-station for the British, who built it on the site of a thousand-year-old Khasi settlement and made it Assam’s capital in 1874.
Sadly, the city has lost some of its charm, the surrounding hills have suffered severe deforestation and the influx of settlers from the plains has placed a strain on natural resources, especially water. Much of the original Victorian town, however, is still evident, and the large gardens around Ward Lake and the buildings surrounding it conjure up images of a colonial past. North of the polo ground is one of Asia’s oldest golf courses, founded in 1898 by a group of British civil servants. Rabindranath Tagore wrote Raktakarabi in Shillong, and the city also features in his masterwork Shesher Kobita.
Life in Shillong used to revolve around the decorative Ward Lake and the European Ward next to it, with large bungalows in pine-shaded gardens, and the governor’s official residence, Government House. The ambience here is in stark contrast to the narrow streets of Police Bazaar, packed with vendors, or, further west, Bara Bazaar, where Meghalaya’s oldest market, Iewduh, is held: in the days of the Raj, a British officer on horseback patrolled the market to ensure no one littered. The shabby State Museum in Lachumiere has exhibits on tribal customs, while the sparkling Don Bosco Museum offers a fascinating insight into the region’s tribal groups – just skirt over the woefully one-sided portrayal of Christian missionaries. To get here, head to Hotel Polo Towers, then follow the river round to the west for 1.5km until you find the signs pointing uphill to the museum. The Museum of Entomology, 2km northwest of Police Bazaar, is dedicated to moths and butterflies.
Shillong is peppered with small booths filled with punters betting on siat khnam, a local sport in which Khasi men fire arrows at a target and spectators bet on the final two digits of the total. Daily games start around 3.30pm opposite Nehru Stadium.
For some respite from the city, head to Tripura Castle, from where a short uphill walk takes you into pine-forested hills, while Shillong Peak (1965m), 10km west of town, also offers great views, as well as being home to the last four ilex khasiana, a high-altitude tree on the verge of extinction.
Cherrapunjee and Mawsynram
Cherrapunjee and Mawsynram
CHERRAPUNJEE, 56km south of Shillong in the Khasi Hills, achieved fame as the wettest place on earth: the highest daily rainfall ever recorded fell here in 1876 – 104cm in 24 hours. Nearby Mawsynram, however, now gets slightly more water, with a staggering average annual rainfall of 1187cm. The area’s numerous waterfalls are most impressive during the steamy monsoon season when awesome torrents plunge down to the Bangladeshi plains. However, in recent years the level of precipitation has decreased – most likely as a result of climate change – and water shortages have even been reported.
Cherrapunjee town is spread out over several kilometres. Every eight days a market is held here, with tribal jewellery and local orange-coloured honey on offer. The various nearby points of interest – the Noh Kalikai waterfall, Bangladesh viewpoint, and Mawsmai village and cave – are all within a few kilometres of Cherrapunjee, though in different directions. An easy way of seeing them all is to join Meghalaya Tourism’s day-trip. Alternatively, a taxi for the day costs Rs1200–1600.
You can visit Cherrapunjee on a day-trek along the David Scott Trail from Mawsphlang, the site of an ancient sacred grove. Impulse Inc at the NGO Network in Shillong’s Lachumiere (t0364/250 0587) can organize this.
The main attraction at MAWSYNRAM, 12km from Cherrapunjee, is the Mawjinbuin cave, where a stalagmite resembling a shivalingam is perpetually bathed by water dripping from a breast-shaped stalactite. There are no direct buses between Mawsynram and Cherrapunjee, so hire a taxi or join Meghalaya Tourism’s day-trip.